ProfitableVenture.com

Helping You Start a Business With Less Risk!

50 Best Service Based Business Ideas for 2016 with High ROI

Are you interested in starting a business in the service industry? If YES, here are 50 service business ideas with high return on investment that you can start with little capital in 2016.

Service related businesses cut across all the industries because of the nature of the businesses that are offered as services. As a matter of fact, it is easier for an aspiring entrepreneur who is interested in starting a business to go ahead and start a service related business; that is if they know they don’t have the start – up capital to launch a product based business. All you would need to start a service based business is a business skill, determination and the desire to create wealth.

For example; a young college graduate who is finding it difficult to secure a great job, need not struggle for so long trying to get employed. All he or she needs to do is to look for a service based business to start. This is a business that requires little or no capital to commence.

So with little, he or she can successfully launch it. Businesses such as real estate brokerage services, virtual assistance, home tutor services, event management, and repairs related services and babysitting jobs amongst so many others.

Although of these service related jobs would require that you register a business, obtain a license and then print out your business cards , and so on before starting; yet there are while some you can successfully start without any of the items mentioned except when you want to legalize the business.

For the purpose of this article, we will talk about service based businesses that are categorized under the business to business model, Social / nonprofit ideas and home improvement services. For the records; a Business to Business model is a business that is focused on selling products or services to other companies. Nonprofits organizations (NPOs) are establishments that make use of their excess revenues to pursue a cause that would be beneficial to the public or a particular group of people.

In a nutshell, the overall goal of non – profits organizations is not to be successful in terms of wealth creation, but to be a success when it comes to giving value to the groups of people they direct their services at or to the cause they choose to pursue. Whilst home improvement businesses are businesses that offer services that are aim towards giving our homes and environment a face – lift / new look.

Here are 50 service based business ideas that an entrepreneur who is serious about making money should consider starting without delay;

50 Best Service Based Business Ideas for 2016 with High ROI

Business to Business Service Related Business Ideas

  1. Online Marketing Company

Online marketing job is one of the business to business services that an entrepreneur can successfully start. If you have good marketing skills, you can source for companies who are looking for people to help them market their goods and services. This kind of business is based on commission and you can successfully start this type of business with a laptop and internet services. So if you are looking towards starting a business to business services related business, one that requires little or no start – up capital, then one of your options is to start an online marketing company.

  1. Freelance Writing Jobs

Freelance writing jobs or content creations jobs is a simple business that an ambitious entrepreneur who is looking towards started a business to business service related business can comfortably start. Just like most online business, you can start this type of business with little or no start – up capital. All you need to get started as a freelance writer is good writing skills, a computer, and an internet facility. There are several websites that you can source for freelance writing jobs; websites such as freelance.com, oDesk.com and elance.com

  1. Freelance Researching Jobs

Another business to business service related business that an entrepreneur should consider starting is a freelance researching business. There are several organizations out there that are willing to pay professional researchers to help them handle their research projects. As a matter of fact, multinationals who are interested in starting a business or opening a branch of their office in another country would usually engage research organization in the host country to help them conduct research, feasibility studies and market survey et al. So, if you are skilled in researching and conducting survey, then you should consider starting a freelance research company.

  1. Haulage Services

Haulage services is yet another business to business service related business that an entrepreneur who is interested in making money should consider starting. Haulage business is all about transporting goods from one location to another location.

As a matter of fact, it is economical for manufacturing industry to contract the transportation of their raw materials and their finished goods to haulage companies. For example, once a manufacturing company contracted services to a haulage company, it becomes the responsibility of the haulage company to transport raw materials from the market to the factory and then transport finished products to warehouses scattered all around the country or to distributors.

  1. Start an Advertising and Branding Agency

It is normal for organizations to contract the branding and advertising of their products and services to experts who know how to do it. If you have training in this regard, then you should consider starting an advertising and branding agency. There are several business opportunities available for advertising and branding companies simply because of the roles they play in helping businesses grow and expand. So if you are starting this type of business, ensure that you are well positioned and you won’t struggle much to attract clients. The truth is that once businesses see results from your services, they will surely patronize your services.

  1. Video Coverage and Photography Business

Video coverage and photography business is yet another business to business service that an entrepreneur should consider starting. There are several businesses that depend of professional photographers to help them take professional photo shots of their products, so as to display it on their website or their publications (brochures, catalogues, diary, and calendar et al). Thus, also during special events most organizations ensures that they video cover such events for the records. Aside from the fact that this pictures and videos are kept in their library, they are also good marketing tools.

  1. Start a Consulting Business

If you have a robust qualification and experience, one of the business to business services you can offer is to start a consulting firm. Of course the consulting industry is indeed a large industry, but if you are interested in helping startups grow, then you can start a business consulting firm. There are several entrepreneurs and aspiring entrepreneurs out there who will be willing to pay for your services as long as they will get result. It is important to state that your pedigree and the result you command is your most effective marketing tool as a business consultant.

  1. Computer Servicing and Networking Business

It is rare to see a corporate organization without a computer and perhaps internet facility; this is because of what the jet age has brought forth. The advent of computer and the internet has indeed given leverages to businesses. Computer services and networking is yet another business to business service that an entrepreneur who is interested in starting a business should consider starting.

There are several organizations, especially SMEs who usually contract the servicing of their computers and networking to vendors. It is more economical for them to do so as against employing a specialist to handle the role. So if you are a computer engineer, then you should consider starting a computer servicing and networking business.

  1. Ink Refill Business

Ink refilling business is yet another highly profitable and thriving business that an entrepreneur who is looking towards starting a small scale business to business services related business should consider starting. The fact that most organizations print on a daily basis makes it inevitable for them to run out of inks, hence the need for ink refilling. Ink refill business is a business to offer valuable services which is why if the business is well positioned, it will attract loads of clients per time.

  1. Sale and Servicing of Office Equipment and Machines

Sell and servicing of office equipment and machines is yet another profitable and thriving business that falls under business to business services related business. Machines like printer, photocopy machines, fax machines, routers, scanners, and laminating machines et al, are all machines that once in a while needs to be serviced in order to perform effectively.

So, if you have related technical training, then you should consider going into the sale and services of office equipment and machines. All you need to do is to me aggressive in marketing your services especially to SMEs; they are the people that need your services the most.

  1. Tax Consulting Business

The issue of tax is a serious issue; this is because there are severe penalties to face, if any organization or even individual is found to have evaded tax. Most start – ups and even bigger organizations, find it convenient and safe to contract all their tax related issues to tax consultants. So if you are looking for a business to business service related business to start, then one of your options is to start a tax consulting business. Please note that starting this type of business requires professional certifications and relevant experience in taxation et al; it is a professional business

  1. Corporate Training and Human Resource Consulting Business

Another profitable and thriving business to business service related business that an entrepreneur who has robust experience in human resources should consider starting is corporate training and human resource consulting business. There are several corporate organizations out there who may find it convenient and economical to contract their trainings and some specialized human resources jobs to professionals.

As such; if you know that you have training, experience and qualifications in this regard, then you should consider starting a corporate training and human resource consulting business. Although, there are several corporate training and human resource consulting firm out there, but if you are able to come up with unique approach to training delivery, you are likely not going to struggle to gain your own fair share of the existing market.

  1. Start an Auditing Firm

Are you a trained and chartered accountant? Do you intend starting your own business? If you are able to answer yes to these questions, then you should consider starting an auditing firm. Auditing firms help both small organizations and large organization audit their accounts and prepare their books. As a matter of fact, auditing firm is a good example of business to business services related business. Just like most consulting businesses, an auditing firm is a core professional business that can only be run by chattered accounts / auditors.

  1. Power Plant / Generating Set Maintenance and Servicing Business

It is the norm to see offices and players in the manufacturing industry generating their electrical power themselves – especially in the developing world where electricity supply is epileptic. If you live in a country where companies generate their own electric power, then one of the business to business services you can render in to go into power plan / generating set maintenance and servicing business.

It is a thriving and profitable business that a trained plant engineer or technician can successfully start. Just ensure that you go all out there to market your services and you are sure going to secure good business deals from factories and corporate organizations that depend on power generating sets to for their electrical power supply.

  1. Start a Courier Service Business

Another thriving and profitable business to business service that an entrepreneur who is serious about making money should consider starting is a courier service business. It is the usual practice for corporate organization to send hardcopy documents like share certificate, insurance policy cover, employment letters, letters and other related documents to people and organizations.

The job of courier service companies is to deliver such documents as requested. There are indeed loads of business opportunities for courier services especially in cities where business activities are booming. So if you are looking for a location to site this type of business, ensure that it is a location with robust business activities; places like New York City, Lagos, Tokyo, London, Paris and Milan is ideal for this type of business.

  1. Sale and Installation of Software Application

Payroll software, CRM software, account software, call center software, and other related software are in high demand in the corporate world. So, if you are looking for business to business services to render, then one of your options is to go into the sale and installation of software application. As a matter of fact, there is hardly any serious business that does not make use of relevant software applications; it makes it easier for them to run their business smoothly and in most cases on auto – pilot. Sale and installation of software applications is a profitable and thriving business venture but you would need to equip yourself with ICT skills if you intend launching this type of business.

  1. Organize Business Expos cum Trade Fairs

An extra easy to start business to business services related business that an entrepreneur who has good organizing skills and is all out to make money should consider starting is to start organizing business expos and trade fairs. You can start at a community level and you are able to get a good buy – in from stake holders, you can grow the business to state and national level.

The truth is that most organizations will look for any available platforms to reach out to the market and sell their goods and services. If you are able to convince businesses that you can generate the kind of massive traffic they are looking for, they will me more than willing to pay to participate in your business expos and trade fair.

  1. Air Condition Installation and Servicing Business

Air condition installation and servicing business is yet another highly profitable and thriving business to business service that an entrepreneur should consider starting. This type of business requires technical skills; hence if you are looking towards starting this type of business, you should ensure that you have acquired the relevant training and exposure.

There is indeed a large market for this type of services simply because there is hardly any corporate organization where you won’t find air conditions installed. All you need to do is to send out business proposals to as many corporate organizations within your reach and you are sure going to get good response from some of the organizations that received your proposal to service and maintained their air conditions.

  1. Security Consulting Services

Security consulting services is yet another key business to business service that is in high demand in the business world. As such; if you are looking for a business to business services to render, then you should consider starting a security consulting business. Security consulting business is a highly profitable and thriving business that a trained security expert can successfully launched. The truth is that if you are a known and reputable security expert, loads of organization would be willing to hire your services.

  1. Waste Disposal Business /Refuse Collector

Waste are generated not only in households but in offices and factories on a daily basis hence the need for waste disposal services. So, if you are looking for business to business services to render, then one of your options is to start a waste disposal business (refuse collector business) in your city.

Before starting this type of business, it is advisable to consult with the waste management board of your city or state to know the requirements for starting this type of business. No doubt this type of business is thriving and profitable especially if you are also engaged in waste recycling business. There are loads of products that can be generated from waste. Products such as organic fertilizer, pet bottles, plastic products, nylon bags, and cartons are all products that can be generated from waste.

  1. Training Equipment and Hall Rental Services

Training equipment and hall rental services is yet another thriving and profitable business to business service that an entrepreneur who is serious about making money should consider starting. There are several organizations especially startups that go all out to rent projectors, boards, halls and other training equipment whenever they want to train their staff. It is a business that won’t take the bulk of your time. As a matter of fact, you can successfully combine this type of business with your regular 9 to 5 job. Consequently, if you have the resources to build a training hall and to acquire training equipment, then it will pay you to go into this type of business.

  1. Recruitment Consulting Business

It is normal for most organization to contract the recruitment of employees for their organization to recruitment experts so that they can concentrate on their core duties. So, if you have experience in recruitment, then one of the business to business services you should consider starting is to open a recruitment consulting business.

Beyond every reasonable doubt, this type of business is highly profitable and lucrative because of the numbers of people out there who are looking for paid employment. Please note that before you can successfully launch this type of business, you must have acquired the relevant certifications and qualification.

  1. Office Support Business

Another easy to start business to business services that an entrepreneur who is interested in starting a business should consider starting is office support business. Office support business offer a wide range of services such as data entry services, web updating services, run errands, distribution of fliers and research jobs et al.

So if you are looking towards starting a business, then one of your options is to start an office support business. This type of business is thriving and profitable especially if you offer numerous office support services and if your business is located close to the hub of business in your country or city. Just ensure that you market your services to both startups and established business and you will surely secure more than a handful of business deals.

  1. Start an Outsourcing Business (Call Center)

Towards the end of the 20th century, corporations in the United States and United Kingdom started outsourcing some of their businesses to other countries such as India, China and Philippines et al. Call center services is amongst the business services that are outsourced simply because it is economical to do. So, if you live in India, China, Philippines, Nigeria et al and you are looking for a business to business services to launch, then one of your option is to start an outsourcing call center business. Although this type of business is capital intensive, but at the same time it is highly profitable especially if you know how to source for businesses abroad.

  1. Virtual Office Rental Services

There are loads of entrepreneurs out there who don’t have offices of their own but operate from virtual offices. This goes to show that virtual office rental services is a highly profitable and thriving business not just in the United States of America but also in most part of the world. It is cheaper and cost effective for entrepreneurs who are just starting their businesses to make use of virtual offices as against renting an office space of their own. So, if you are looking for business to business services that you can start, one of your options is to go into virtual office rental business.

Social / Non-Profits Business Ideas

  1. Open a Religious Worship Center (churches, mosques, synagogues et al)

If you are looking towards establishing a social / nonprofits ideas, one of your options is to open a religious center; it could be a church, a synagogue or mosque. The bottom line is that you should ensure that you have undergone the required training, you have gotten your license to practice and you abide by the rules and regulation of the regulating body of the religion of your choice. Religious organizations depend on freewill giving and donations from members (charity) for survival since they are not established for profit making.

  1. Start a Private Research Institute

Another social enterprise that you can consider starting if you are well grounded in research is to open a private research institute; a place where people can visit to conduct research on the areas your organization covers. Your research institute could be in the area of health, technology, agriculture or any area of your choice. Private research institute get funding and grants from the government, donor agencies and corporate organizations especially organizations that are interested in the areas of research that you are engaged in.

  1. Skills Acquisition Center

Another social enterprise that an entrepreneur who is looking towards starting a social / nonprofit organization should consider is to open a community based skill acquisition center; a place where youths in the community can enroll to acquire one or more skills. In skill acquisition centers people can learn skills such as tie and dye, soap making, tailoring, pomade making, food processing, cake baking, bags making, shoes and belt making just to mention but a few. As a matter of fact you can partner with the government of your country to run your skill acquisition center.

  1. Open an Orphanage

The nonprofit idea that is worth pursuing if you have the resources is to open an orphanage. Of course orphanages are not established for profit making; they rely on donations from individuals and corporate organizations to function. Starting an orphanage is indeed a core charity project.

  1. Open a Community Clinic (Health / Medicals)

If you are a medical personal who is looking towards starting a social enterprise, one of the ideas should consider pursuing is to open a community clinic (health center). A place where medical services will be greatly subsidized. If you are considering starting this type of project, you can talk to doctors, nurses and other medical personal to volunteer their services since you are running the organization based on charity.

  1. Start a Political Organization (Politics)

An interesting social enterprise that an entrepreneur who is interested in starting a business should consider starting is to open a political organization; it could be a political party or a pressure group et al. All you need to do is to market the idea to people of like mind to enroll and become members and also to source for funds and grants from funding organizations and political stakeholders. Political organizations are indeed needed for the survival of democracy especially in Africa where democracy is still nascent.

  1. Offer Legal Aid Services

If you are a lawyer and are interested in starting a social enterprise, one of your options is to offer legal aid services to those who cannot afford to hire a lawyer. There are loads of people out there who are struggling to survive talk less of hiring a lawyer. Such services will be of great importance to them. Just like all nonprofit organizations, you would need to apply for grants and funding from donor organizations and from individuals donors as well.

  1. Volunteer Services Organizations

There are organizations out there who are involved in supplying volunteers when they are needed; this type of organizations are operated as non – profit organization. So if you are looking for a social enterprise to start, then one of your options is to start a volunteer services organization. Organizations such as these operate based on grants from donor agencies, financial support from individuals and corporate organizations. It is a way of keeping the youths in a community engaged in productive activities that will inevitably keep them from engaging in crimes. Besides it is a way of helping idle youths gain experience and learn new skills as well.

  1. Organizing Sport Events at Community Level

If you are good at organizing events, one of the social enterprises that you should consider starting is to start organizing sport events at community level. You can partner with your local government or leading companies in your community. It is a simple way of getting youths engaged in a productive cause so as to keep them away from engaging in crimes in the society.

If you are interested in this type of social enterprise , then you should look towards organizing sports events such as soccer competitions, basketball competition, cricket competition, swimming competition, tennis competition, and rugby competition just to mention but a few. As a matter of fact you can easily attract sponsorship from your local government and from leading organizations in and around your community.

  1. Open an ICT Training Center (ICT Hub)

Another highly thriving and trending social enterprise that an entrepreneur should consider starting is to open an ICT training center / hub; a place where people who are interested in the ICT industry can easily connect and those who intend acquiring ICT skills can comfortable visit. You can secure funding from the government of your country, from stakeholders in the ICT industry and from individuals who may be willing to partner with you. The truth is that, if your business idea is well packaged, the government of your country especially at local level may partner with because it is a way of engaging the youths in productive activities that will keep them away from crimes.

  1. Open a community Museum (Arts and Culture)

If you are interested in arts and culture, one of the social enterprise ideas that you should consider starting is to open a community museum; a place where the art and culture of your community will be preserved. If you are considering starting this type of social enterprise, then it will be to your advantage to partner with your local government and perhaps institutions of higher learning in your city or community. Aside from the revenue that you will generate from visitors and tourists, you can also receive grants and funding from donor agencies, individuals, corporate organizations and from the government of your country

  1. Start a Book Club

Starting a book club is yet another easy to start social enterprise that an entrepreneur can successfully launch. Book clubs is basically all about a group of people coming together to discuss a book or books that they have read or the books they are currently reading. It is cheaper to start and to run a book club, but you have to be creative if you want to make money out of your book club. Aside from the membership fee you will collect from people who want to join your book club, you would have to design strategies on how to generate income from members of your book club and from other related areas.

If you want to make money from your book club, then you should consider starting a sales book club; with a sales book club, you will be able to sell books at a discount price to your members and of course your members will be the first set of people to get newly released books from your stable.

  1. Organize Carnivals and Other Related Events in Your Community

Another interesting social enterprise idea that an entrepreneur should consider starting especially if you are good with organizing events is to start organize carnivals and other related events in your community. If your events are well packaged, you can successfully get financial support and sponsorship deals from your local government, corporate organizations that operate within your community and from individuals who are interested in the event you intend organizing.

  1. Offer Training and Mentorship to Youths in Your Community

The rate of crimes is on the increase in the United States of America and in most part of the world. One of the ways of reducing crimes is to engage youths in a productive venture. As a matter of fact, the government of any country will be more than willing to partner with any nonprofit organization that is ready to work with the youth. So, if you are thinking towards starting a youth based social enterprise, then one of your options is to offer trainings and mentorship to youths in your community. The training could be in the area of soft skills, sports, how to become a successful volunteer and computer training et al.

Home Improvement Business Ideas

  1. Offer Lawn Care Services

Lawn care services is one of the home improvement service based business that an entrepreneur who is interested in making money should consider starting. It is a business that is easy to start and manage; the basic equipment needed to start this time of business is lawn mower, shovel, rake, wheelbarrow and shearer et al.

It is important to state that Lawn care and maintenance business falls in the category of seasonal businesses; the industry experiences downtime during the winter period and in most states in the US. In general, the demand for lawn care services is usually at its peak in the spring and generally between April and October. Which is why lawn care companies are always everywhere sourcing for lawn care business deals within this period of the year.

  1. Offer Landscaping Services

Another thriving and profitable easy to start home improvement business that an entrepreneur who is serious about making money should consider starting is to offer landscaping services. Landscape architecture is all about the art, planning, designing, management, preservation and rehabilitation of the land and the design of a large man – made construct; it beautifies our environment.

Landscaping business just like Lawn care business is not one of those businesses that someone can start and make big money from without truly working pretty hard and smart. Any entrepreneur who intends starting his or her own landscaping business and making huge profits from it must be very creative and must be ready to go the extra mile to convince clients that he or she can deliver an excellent job and he or she must prove beyond every reasonable doubt that they are competent.

  1. Start an Interior Decoration Business

An interior decoration business is a typical home improvement business that an entrepreneur who is thoughtful about making money should consider starting. Interior decoration is all about giving our homes, offices and buildings facelifts; interior decors are involved activities ranging from color selections for apartments, lighting selections, blind selections amongst some many things that are needed to bring out the beauty in a house. So if you are looking for a home improvement business to start, then your best bet is to start an interior decoration business; it is a profitable and thriving business venture to engage in.

  1. Start a Plumbing Business

In recent time, it appears that plumbers are scarce to come by; the plumbers that are available in most communities are not enough to service the community. So if you are looking for a home improvement business to start, then one of your options is to start a plumbing business. It is important to state that you would need to acquire a plumbing skill is you intend starting a plumbing business. This type of business is a business that you can successfully run alone or with one or more employees.

  1. Go into Home Painting Business

Home painting business is yet another highly lucrative and profitable home improvement business that an entrepreneur who is interested in making money should consider starting. One of the easiest ways of improving the appearance of your home is first to paint your house. This goes to show that there are indeed loads of business opportunities for professional painters.

So if you are looking towards starting a home improvement business, a business that requires very minimal start – up capital and a business that you can successfully operate alone or with one or more employees, then one of your options is to go into home painting business. It is important to state that you would be required to acquire training as a painter before you can successfully launch this type of business.

  1. Sale, Sewing and Fixing of Window Blinds / Cottons

Sale, sewing and fixing of window blinds (cottons) is yet another lucrative and profitable home improvement business that an entrepreneur can successfully state. As a matter of fact, blinds are part of what brings out the beauty in a home and there is hardly any apartment that you won’t find window blinds. So if you are looking for a simple home improvement business to start, a business that you can successfully run alone or with the aid of one or two employees, then one of your options is to go into the sale, sewing and fixing of window blinds (cottons).

  1. Fixing of Wall Papers

One of the coolest ways of making money from home improvement related business is to go into the fixing of wall papers. Wall papers are now produced in 3D format and they usually change the outlook of an apartment once they are used.

So, if you are looking for a profitable, thriving, simple and cost effective business to launch in the home improvement line of business, then one of your options is to start fixing wall papers. It is a business that college students can successful start and manage; it requires just few days of training. Your ability to generate income from this type of business depends largely on your ability to market your services; social media and your catalogue are your major marketing tools.

  1. Furniture Polishing Services

Furniture polishing services is yet another thriving and profitable home improvement business venture that an entrepreneur who is interested in making money should consider starting. There are loads of people who are willing to pay for these services. Furniture such as cupboard, wardrobe, cabins, shelves, tables, and any wooden products can come alive and shinning if properly polished. So if you are looking for a simple but yet profitable home improvement services to start, then one of your options is to go into furniture polishing business.

  1. Floor (Tiles, Marbles, Terrazzo and Wooden Floors et al) Cleaning and Stain Remover Services

Floor (tiles, marbles, terrazzo and wooden floors et al) cleaning and stain remover services is yet another thriving and profitable home improvement business that an entrepreneur who is interested in making money from the cleaning industry should consider starting. This type of business is a niche in the cleaning industry and it is a business that requires professionalism on like general cleaning services. It is important to state that in order to successfully launch this type of business, it will be to your advantage to undergo training, and you can learn the trade from someone who is already successful with this type of business.

  1. Sale and Installing of Christmas Trees and Christmas Lights et al

During Christmas season it is the norm for people to decorate their houses and offices with Christmas trees and Christmas lights. So if you are looking towards starting a home improvement business, then one of your options is to go into the sale and installation of Christmas trees and Christmas lights in homes and offices. Although this type of business is seasonal, but that does not mean that it is not a profitable business venture to engage in. As a matter of fact, you can start this type of business with little or no startup capital. Just ensure that you make use of word of mouth and the internet to market your services.

  1. Sale and Fixing of Electrical Lights and Fittings

Lastly another thriving and profitable home improvement business that an entrepreneur who is interested in making money should consider starting is to go into the sale and fixing of electrical lights and fittings. As a matter of fact, with the correct lightings the outlook of a house can dramatically change. So if you are looking towards starting a home improvement business, then one of your options is to go into the sale and fixing of electrical lights and fittings. You might need to acquire electrical trainings for you to be able to successfully launch this type of business.

More Service Business Ideas With High Return on Investment

Bottom-line is that starting a business to business kind of trade is one of the best things that could ever happen to you, as you will be able to make great contacts from the corporate industry, as there are loads of opportunities that abound, as well as huge returns on investment.

ProfitableVenture.com © 2015 - 2016 | All Rights Reserved | See About us | Privacy Policy and Disclaimer.