Do you want to start a senior care business by buying a franchise? If YES, here are 33 best home health care franchise opportunities for sale and their cost.

It is a fact that the home health care cum senior care market is huge, and is still growing fast. Statistics shows that more than 10,000 Americans turn 65 every day, and by 2050 the number of people 65+ will double. This growth is reflected in the demand for home care and home health services – by far the demand leader in the health care industry.

As a home care franchise or hospice owner, you can capitalize on the rising senior population, thanks to baby boomers coming of age, plus other trends, such as aging in place, that promises a secure future for years to come.

If you are considering starting your own home health care business, then opting for the franchise model of starting a business in the United States of America is one sure way to go especially if you are an aspiring entrepreneur or investor who wants to avoid the teething problems associated with startups.

So, if you want to buy a home health care franchise, in no particular order, here are the 33 best home health care franchise companies to buy in the United States of America;

33 Best Home Health Care Franchise Opportunities for Sale and Their Cost

  1. AHI Group | Startup HomeCare

StartupHomeCare is the initial training arm of AHI Group – a nationwide Membership Organization of 300+ home care agencies. AHI Group provides a comprehensive non-medical home care business start-up and support membership solution for those individuals who want to truly own their business and receive unlimited financial return while providing a valuable and rewarding service to their senior community.

AHI Group offers all the benefits of a franchise without the franchiser’s many restrictions, or the high cost of starting a Senior Care franchise.

Financial Requirements and Info

  • Available Locations – Opportunities currently available throughout the United States.
  • Minimum Cash Required – $25,000
  • Veterans – Many veterans and their surviving spouses can qualify for a Veterans Administration (VA) Pension Benefit that can pay for non- medical in-home care services – up to 30 hours per week.
  1. Always Best Care

Established in 1996, Always Best Care began awarding franchises in 2007, and is now one of the leading senior care franchise systems in the United States. Always Best Care is the only senior services franchise system that combines non-medical in-home care, assisted living finder services and skilled home health care to create three potential revenue streams for their franchisees.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Available Locations – Available across the United States.
  • Minimum Cash Required – $60,000
  1. A Place at Home

A Place at Home is a senior-focused care company that offers a continuum of care services including companion and licensed personal care, care coordination, staffing solutions to senior care communities, medication administration services, and placement services that assist seniors in finding the next place to call home.

This whole-view approach recognizes that everyone’s situation is different, and the need for reliable, varied and consistent services from the same company is essential to allowing seniors to age gracefully.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Available Locations – Available in the United States. Excludes: HI, ND, NY, SD.
  • Minimum Cash Required – $100,000
  1. Accessible Home Health Care

With over 19 years of industry experience and strong leadership, Accessible Home Health Care has developed a proven business model that will help you profit from one of the fastest growing industries while making the right home care solutions available to your neighbors.

Accessible Home Health Care is a privately-owned, full-service home health care company. Their track record proves that they provide the best medical and companion care, care management, and medical staffing services.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Minimum Cash Required – $100,000
  • Veterans – 10% discount offered
  1. Acti-Kare Responsive In-Home Care

Acti-Kare has become an industry leader by offering high quality, compassionate home care to seniors and others needing assistance, such as new mothers and their children, those recovering from surgery or other ailments, and even pets. Acti-Kare offers a complete suite of caregiver services, utilizing a variety of settings, including in-home, in assisted living facilities and in retirement communities.

Acti-Kare franchisees provide superior caregiving services to the whole family in the comfort of their own homes. Franchise owners manage a staff of trained caregivers that utilize the proprietary ACTI-VATE Program to help clients live happier, more active lives.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Minimum Cash Required – $30,000
  1. BrightStar Care®

BrightStar Care provides clients skilled as well as non-skilled in-home health care designed to improve their health and quality of life and ease the caregiving burden on their loved ones. Their franchisees earn accreditation from The Joint Commission, a nationally recognized healthcare standards organization that accredits renowned facilities like the Mayo Clinic.

The Joint Commission has named BrightStar Care an “Enterprise Champion for Quality” for six consecutive years thanks to the systems and training they have in place to help senior care franchisees and the staff deliver a Higher Standard of Care.

BrightStar Care offers in-house financing to cover accounts receivable and also, they have relationships with third-party sources which offer financing to cover franchise fee, startup costs, equipment, inventory, accounts receivable, and payroll.

BrightStar Care is seeking new franchise units throughout the U.S. and in the following regions/states: Asia, Australia/New Zealand, Canada, and Western Europe.

Financial Requirements

  • Initial Investment – $93,048 – $154,307
  • Liquid Cash Requirement – $150,000
  • Ongoing Fees (Initial Franchise Fee) – $50,000 – $50,000
  • Ongoing Royalty Fee – 5.25%
  • Ad Royalty Fee – 3%
  • Veteran Incentives – $5,000 off first-unit franchise fee
  1. CareBuilders at Home

CareBuilders at Home is the only homecare franchise in America in which the franchisor is the direct employer of the franchisee’s caregivers.

CareBuilders at Home is an “all-inclusive” in home health care franchise which provides home assessments, personal care, non-medical home care, In-home technology, and transition planning services. CareBuilders at Home franchises work to improve the quality of life at every stage of aging.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Minimum Cash Required – $150,000
  1. CarePatrol

CarePatrol is one of the leading brands in the senior care industry, which is expected to rise to $300 billion annually by 2020. The reason they are one of the industry leaders is that their founding in 1993 created a lucrative and untapped market segment: the home placement industry.

CarePatrol has grown to over 150 locations in more than 44 states, making the company not only the largest home placement franchise in the nation but also the brand that Americans trust. More importantly, their franchisees have helped thousands of families and are rewarded both financially and personally, as the impact their franchisees have on their communities cannot be measured.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Available Locations – Single and multi-unit franchise opportunities available in the US.
  • Minimum Cash Required – $50,000
  1. Caring Matters Home Care

Caring Matters is a non-medical in-home personal care agency. It was founded by Mr. Russell Piper, a registered nurse with over 20 years’ experience in caring for patients and working closely with those in need of nursing services. Together with the assistance of a dedicated team of professionals, Caring Matters redefined in-home care to create something that is truly exceptional.

Caring Matters provides quality care to clients of all ages and physical challenges. The one-on-one care provided by their trained and reliable staff enables their clients to stay in their homes and at the same time receive the necessary assistance to maintain the well-being and peace of mind that come from being in the familiar surroundings of home and family.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Minimum Cash Required – $35,000
  1. ComForCare Home Care

ComForCare is your opportunity to own a business that makes a real, meaningful difference in the lives of people in your community. Their franchise owners are on a mission to help families find peace of mind, knowing that their aging loved ones want to “live their best lives possible.”

Founded over 20 years ago, ComForCare has grown to over 200 locations across the country and has built a national reputation as one of the most innovative leaders in the $300 billion senior care industry.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Available Locations – Single, multi-unit franchise opportunities available across the US.
  • Minimum Cash Required – $50,000
  1. Golden Heart Senior Care

Golden Heart Senior Care is a premiere healthcare services company that provides in-home, non-medical client services, including companion care, personal care and assisted living placement to senior citizens and others that require caregiver services and relocation assistance.

In-home care franchise owners are in a unique position to offer affordable, high-quality home care services to seniors in need, while also being part of an industry predicted to expand for the next several decades.

Golden Heart Senior Care offers in-home care franchise opportunities to hard-working investors who are willing to put in the effort to build a business through referrals, personal relationships and a commitment to excellent care for clients and a trusting, happy environment for employees.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Minimum Cash Required – $45,000
  1. Griswold Home Care

Griswold Home Care is the nation’s first non-medical home care franchise opportunity. Jean Griswold founded the company out of a true sense of need in her community. Her legacy of compassion and empathy has blossomed into one of the most successful and storied home care brands in the United States.

Today, they are a standout franchise opportunity in the $89 billion annual home care industry. The premier non-medical home care franchise excels at compassionate care for those who need it most. As a Griswold franchisee, you’ll provide a range of non-medical, in-home services.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Minimum Cash Required – $49,500
  • Veterans – Griswold Home Care offers an 10% discount off the initial franchise fee to any honorably discharged US military veteran.
  1. Right at Home LLC

As a hospital administrator, Allen Hager saw many senior patients who could use help caring for themselves after they returned home. That inspired him to start Right at Home in 1995, in Omaha, Nebraska. The company began franchising in 2000, and franchisees work with clients to develop a custom care plan and match them with caregivers to provide in-home care services.

Right at Home LLC has relationships with third-party sources which offer financing to cover franchise fee, and startup costs. The company is seeking new franchise units throughout the U.S. and in the following regions/states: Asia, Australia/New Zealand, Canada, Eastern Europe, South America, and Western Europe.

Financial Requirements

  • Initial Investment – $79,250 – $137,900
  • Liquid Cash Requirement – $150,000 – $240,000
  • Ongoing Fees (Initial Franchise Fee) – $49,500 – $49,500
  • Ongoing Royalty Fee – 5%
  • Ad Royalty Fee – 2%
  • Veteran Incentives – 10% off franchise fee
  1. Amada Senior Care

Amada Senior Care is a home care and assisted-living placement company that was founded in 2007 and started franchising since 2012, that is about 7 years ago. They have their corporate head office at 901 Calle Amanecer, #350 San Clemente, CA 92673 and the current CEO of the company is Tafa Jefferson.

The Parent Company of Amada Senior Care is Amada Franchise Inc. and they have relationships with third-party sources which offer financing to cover franchise fee, startup costs, equipment, inventory, accounts receivable, and payroll. The company is seeking new franchise units throughout the United States of America.

Financial Requirements

  • Initial Investment – Low – $85,010 / High – $178,154
  • Net-worth Requirement – $250,000
  • Liquid Cash Requirement – $150,000
  • Initial Franchise Fee – $42,000 – $48,000
  • Ongoing Royalty Fee – 5%
  • Ad Royalty Fee – 1%
  • Veteran Incentives – 10% off franchise fee
  1. Assisted Living Locators

Assisted Living Locators is a senior-care referrals and senior-living placement that was founded in 2003 and they started franchising since 2006 that is about 13 years ago. They have their corporate head office at 7330 E. Earll Dr., #E Scottsdale, AZ 85251 and the current CEO of the organization is Angela Olea.

CallRN Franchise LLC Is the Parent Company of Assisted Living Locators and they have relationships with third-party sources which offer financing to cover franchise fee, startup costs, and equipment.

Financial Requirements

  • Initial Investment – $64,950 – $77,550
  • Net-worth Requirement – $100,000
  • Liquid Cash Requirement – $50,000
  • Initial Franchise Fee – $49,500 – $49,500
  • Ongoing Royalty Fee – 8%+
  • Ad Royalty Fee – 2%
  • Veteran Incentives – 10% off franchise fee
  1. Senior Care Authority

Senior-care placement and consulting was founded in 2009 and the company started franchising since 2014, about 5 years ago. They have their corporate head office at 755 Baywood Dr., #200 Petaluma, CA 94954. The current CEO of the company is Frank Samson.

The Parent Company of Senior Care Authority is Senior Care Authority LLC and they have relationships with third-party sources which offer financing to cover franchise fee, and startup costs.

Financial Requirements

  • Initial Investment – $62,500 – $81,250
  • Net-worth Requirement – $100,000
  • Liquid Cash Requirement – $55,000
  • Initial Franchise Fee – $52,500 – $52,500
  • Ongoing Royalty Fee – 8%
  • Veteran Incentives – Minimum royalty fees waived for first year
  1. Assisting Hands Home Care

Assisting Hands Home Care is a standard home health care, and respite care that was founded in 2006. They started franchising since 2006, about 13 years ago. They have their corporate head office at 5700 E. Franklin Rd., #105 Nampa, ID 83687 and the current CEO of the company is Lane Kofoed.

Assisting Hands Home Care has relationships with third-party sources which offer financing to cover franchise fee, startup costs, and payroll. Assisting Hands Home Care is seeking new franchise units throughout the U.S. and in the following regions/states: Canada, Mexico, and South America.

Financial Requirements

  • Initial Investment – $77,050 – $149,000
  • Net-worth Requirement – $200,000
  • Liquid Cash Requirement – $50,000
  • Initial Franchise Fee – $45,000 – $45,000
  • Ongoing Royalty Fee – 5-4%
  • Ad Royalty Fee – 0.5%
  • Veteran Incentives – 10% off franchise fee
  1. Executive Home Care

Executive Home Care was founded in 2004 and they started franchising since 2012. They have their corporate head office at 270 State St. Hackensack, NJ 07601 and the current CEO of the company is Leonard Verkhoglaz.

Executive Home Care has relationships with third-party sources which offer financing to cover franchise fee, startup costs, equipment, inventory, accounts receivable, and payroll. The organization is seeking new franchise units throughout the United States of America.

Financial Requirements

  • Initial Investment – $99,650 – $169,900
  • Net-worth Requirement – $200,000
  • Liquid Cash Requirement – $150,000
  • Initial Franchise Fee – $44,900 – $44,900
  • Ongoing Royalty Fee – 5%
  • Veteran Incentives – 20% off franchise fee
  1. Caring Senior Service

Jeff Salter worked in the home health care field, and saw a need for nonmedical home care services for seniors, so in 1991, he started Caring Senior Service in Odessa, Texas. The company expanded with several more locations throughout Texas before beginning to franchise nationwide in 2002.

Franchisees offer a variety of in-home care services, including personal care, companionship, meal preparation, transportation, respite care, errand running and housekeeping. Touchscreen tablets in the homes of each client provide real-time video conferencing, caregiver tracking, and a caregiver message center using the company’s proprietary software.

Caring Senior Service offers in-house financing to cover franchise fee and also, they have relationships with third-party sources which offer financing to cover the following: 
startup costs, equipment, inventory, accounts receivable, and payroll.

Financial Requirements

  • Initial Investment – $77,985 – $121,350
  • Liquid Cash Requirement – $50,000 – $100,000
  • Initial Franchise Fee – $39,500 – $39,500
  • Ongoing Royalty Fee – 5%
  • Ad Royalty Fee – 2%
  • Veteran Incentives – 10% off franchise fee
  1. HomeWell Senior Care

Joshua Hoffman started out as an in-home caregiver himself. A client asking him when he was going to start his own business inspired him to open HomeWell Senior Care. The Seattle-based company began franchising in 2003. Though HomeWell franchises offer nonmedical companion care services, Hoffman based the business model on a licensed home health care agency model.

HomeWell Senior Care offers in-house financing to cover franchise fee and also, they have relationships with third-party sources which offer financing to cover startup costs. They are is seeking new franchise units throughout the U.S. and in Canada.

Financial Requirements

  • Initial Investment – $70,450 – $130,200
  • Net-worth Requirement – $300,000
  • Liquid Cash Requirement – $150,000
  • Initial Franchise Fee – $24,900 – $49,500
  • Ongoing Royalty Fee – 5%
  • Veteran Incentives – 10% off franchise fee
  1. Home Helpers Home Care

Home Helpers provides personal care services for seniors, new moms, working parents, those recuperating from illness or surgery and those needing continuing care for lifelong challenges. Services are provided by experienced caregivers in homes, retirement communities, nursing homes, hospitals, rehabilitation centers and others, from one hour per day up to 24 hours per day depending on need.

Home Helpers is affiliated with Direct Link, a vital sign and medication monitoring system. The company was founded in 1997 and they started franchising since 1997 that is about 22 years ago. The Parent Company of Home Helpers Home Care is H.H. Franchising Systems Inc. and they have relationships with third-party sources which offer financing to cover franchise fee, startup costs, equipment, and inventory.

Financial Requirements

  • Initial Investment – $84,750 – $136,900
  • Net-worth Requirement – $250,000
  • Liquid Cash Requirement – $100,000
  • Initial Franchise Fee – $48,900 – $48,900
  • Ongoing Royalty Fee – 3-6%
  • Ad Royalty Fee – 0.5-2%
  • Veteran Incentives – $9,000 off franchise fee
  1. Homewatch CareGivers

Founded in 1980, Homewatch CareGivers is a pioneer in the home care industry, offering an in-demand service in a growing market.

Through training and ongoing support from their subject matter experts, each Homewatch CareGivers franchisee is equipped to deliver exceptional home care that provides peace of mind to clients and their family members, and an opportunity to build a meaningful business. Not only do they offer an investment with approachable startup costs and recurring revenue opportunities, they also focus on their franchise owners’ profitable growth.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Available Locations – Single, multi-unit opportunities available in the US. Excludes: DE, ID, LA, NC, RI, UT.
  • Minimum Cash Required – $75,000
  • Veterans – 10% off the initial franchise fee.
  1. HomeWell Care Services

HomeWell Care Services believes people come first. Their Caregivers are carefully chosen and trained to ensure they are delivering a culture of compassion to all their clients. HomeWell has a trusted reputation for delivering peace of mind and providing home care beyond the call of duty.

HomeWell Care Services offers a ground floor opportunity within the growing non-medical home care industry. They are committed to providing their franchise owners with the tools to succeed, from initial support, in establishing your business to ongoing professional development and coaching.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Available Locations – Single, multi-unit opportunities available in the US. Excludes: LA, NC, NY, RI.
  • Minimum Cash Required – $60,000
  • Veterans – We offer 10% off the franchise fee.
  1. Interim HealthCare

Interim HealthCare Inc. was recently ranked in Entrepreneur Magazine’s Franchise 500®, the world’s first, best and most comprehensive franchise ranking, for its outstanding performance in areas including unit growth, financial strength and stability, and brand power. And that’s just one of the many awards they have earned over the years.

An Interim HealthCare home healthcare franchise gives you the benefit of a ready-made, proven business model with a well-established reputation. Leaning on their home health franchise experience and well-defined business processes and procedures, you will have an unparalleled marketplace advantage.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Minimum Cash Required – $70,000
  1. Nurse Next Door Home Healthcare Services

Nurse Next Door is one of North America’s fastest growing home care franchise systems that provides both medical and non-medical care to seniors. With a trusted brand and proven system, Nurse Next Door is positioned for tremendous growth as demographic trends continue to increase the demand for professional home care services.

With over 150 franchises established across North America and plans for future expansion, this award-winning company provides personalized home health care as a developer and leader of Happier Aging® experiences.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Available Locations – Franchises available in US. Excludes: Louisiana, Mississippi, North and South Dakota, Vermont, Washington DC.
  • Minimum Cash Required – $125,000
  1. Options For Senior America

The largest and fastest growing segment of the population is comprised of seniors over the age of 65. These will constitute the majority of your Options For Senior America clients. People are living longer and life expectancy continues to grow annually, making care for older adults a true growth business.

Options For Senior America is your exciting opportunity to enter the booming senior care market with a proven home care franchise that delivers many benefits, including the largest exclusive territory in the industry, premier training and support, and much more.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Available Locations – Franchises available throughout the United States.
  • Minimum Cash Required – $50,000
  • Veterans – Member of VetFran. Veterans discount offered.
  1. Preferred Care at Home

If you want to be part of a unique organization where franchise opportunities are awarded, earned, and are invitation only; where one’s net worth is not the sole important criterion; where maintaining the highest standards are the highest priority — look no further.

Since 1984, the founders of Preferred Care at Home, now located in 15 states across the country, have helped change lives one at a time.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Minimum Cash Required – $50,000
  • Veterans – For those who served to protect our great nation, Preferred Care at Home offers a 10% discount from the purchase price of their franchise.
  1. Qualicare

Qualicare provides a variety of nurse-led home care services to help loved ones of all ages have more great days and family members can “care” rather than “provide care” to their loved ones. There isn’t a one-size-fits-all approach to high quality home care, that’s why they think creatively about how to optimize every client’s experience.

Their unique 360° Approach helps clients by providing Medical, Non-Medical and concierge services, navigate a complex healthcare system and the challenges of everyday life.

Qualicare’s founders, a husband and wife team dealing with their own family crisis taking care of a parent diagnosed with ALS, spent years working with over 40 specialists and individuals. This led them to the realization that there must be numerous other families struggling to navigate the complex network of healthcare services just like they did. Through their experience they developed what is known today as our concierge style 360° Approach to care.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Minimum Cash Required – $50,000
  1. Senior Helpers

Senior Helpers has been a leader in pioneering advanced Alzheimer’s and dementia care for clients with its breakthrough Senior Gems® program. Developed by renowned occupational therapist Teepa Snow (MS, OR/L, FATE) and recognized by leading health care organizations including the Alzheimer’s Foundation of America, Senior Gems® positions franchise owners to help clients age with dignity and maintain the highest quality of life possible.

When you join with Senior Helpers you will be running your own business with the backing of a growing and supportive network and a trusted national brand. Senior care franchises represent both a fantastic business opportunity in a growing industry as well as a genuine chance to make a meaningful contribution to your community.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Available Locations – Single unit, multi-unit, and master franchise opportunities available in the US.
  • Minimum Cash Required – $49,500
  1. SYNERGY HomeCare

SYNERGY HomeCare is the most personally and professionally rewarding franchise opportunity for you and others like you who have been wanting to help those in need, while bettering yourselves and your families. Their industry-leading franchise system positions you for explosive growth as the Baby Boomers reach their senior years.

Your franchise will offer services to those in need of all ages, and every caregiver will have a thorough, national criminal background check. Add the support of the fastest growing name within the home care industry, and it won’t be long before your franchise is on its way to the top in your region.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Available Locations – Available in the United States. Excludes: HI, ND, NY, SD.
  • Minimum Cash Required – $100,000
  • Veterans – $2,000 off the initial franchise fee.
  1. Talem Home Care

At Talem Home Care, their goal is to empower people to experience the full joy of living. They enable their clients to take control of their wellbeing as they lead them though the complicated health care system, and they achieve their goal of staying independent and healthy at home for as long as possible.

Talem Home Care franchisees and their staff are the single most important ingredient in achieving this goal, and they strive every day to find better ways to support and show their appreciation to them.

With over 35 years of combined experience, the founders of Talem Home Care have created a new franchise model that will lead the industry for years to come.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Minimum Cash Required – $50,000
  1. Touching Hearts at Home

Founded in 1996 by the CEO Renae Peterson, they are a highly experienced franchise support team. A Touching Hearts franchise is said to be easier to run than other home care businesses because they provide non-medical support, and no prior medical training is required for their franchisees or their staff members.

As the home care industry goes through rapid growth, the non-medical in-home senior care segment is quickly becoming the most in-demand. Touching Hearts at Home is ready to meet this need to help aging seniors remain in their homes for as long as possible.

They are a unique franchise offering low initial investment costs and a simple-to-manage model that positions their franchisees to be competitive in this growing market. They are recruiting passionate owners who are driven to make a difference in the lives of their customers.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Available Locations – Single, multi-unit and area development opportunities available throughout the United States.
  • Minimum Cash Required – $50,000
  • Veterans – Touching Hearts at Home offers a 10% discount to our country’s veterans.
  1. TruBlue Total House Care

TruBlue is the only national provider that specializes in-house care for both inside and outside of the home. As the go-to solution for families and seniors in need of assistance, franchise owners can expect to be the first company they call.

And with proprietary software, automated estimation tools, and a unique subscription service, Franchise Owners have all the tools they need to maintain a solid client-base and sustainable, long-term growth.

From start to finish, franchise owners are assisted by the dedicated executive support staff to establish and execute a comprehensive business plan. Covering everything from launch to expansion, business coaches work with franchisees to set realistic and achievable long-term and short-term goals.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Available Locations – Available across the United States.
  • Minimum Cash Required – $50,000
  • Veterans – TruBlue offers a $2,000 discount on the initial franchise fee to qualified military veterans.
  1. Visiting Angels Living Assistance Services

Visiting Angels has been fine-tuning their systems throughout the past two decades and has blazed the trail for more than 600 non-medical, private duty home care agencies throughout the United States. At Visiting Angels, they measure success through their “Caring Quotient.” Profits are always important, but enhancing the quality of life for millions of seniors is their true measure of success.

Visiting Angels franchised agencies thrive collectively from some of the most caring business owners in the world. You can be one of them, delivering premier in-home care services and building your own senior care agency business as you do.

Financial Requirement and Info

  • Available Locations – Franchise opportunities available throughout the United States.
  • Minimum Cash Required – $58,000
  • Veterans – Visiting Angels offers a 10% VetFran discount for any honorably discharged qualified veteran.