Are you about starting a solar panel manufacturing plant? If YES, here is a complete sample solar panel manufacturing plant business plan template & feasibility report you can use for FREE.
Solar panel is rapidly gaining huge market acceptance all over the globe because of how effective and useful it has become to people. Solar panel is simply a device that helps convert sunlight into electrical energy and store it for use. There are lots of areas where you can use solar energy and that is the reason why a lot of inventions being powered by solar energy keep propping up.
No doubt, solar energy has become one of the most reliable sources of power supply especially in the operation of lifts in commercial buildings. The market for solar panels is increasing and it is still open for new investors to come in.
So, if you are thinking of starting a business that is into the production of technological components, then you should consider starting your own solar panel manufacturing company. Below is a sample solar panel manufacturing company business plan template that will help you successfully write yours with little or no stress.
A Sample Solar Panel Manufacturing Plant Business Plan Template
Table of Content
- Industry Overview
- Executive Summary
- Our Product and Services
- Our Mission and Vision Statement
- Job Roles and Responsibilities
- SWOT Analysis
- MARKET ANALYSIS
- Our Target Market
- SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY
- Sales Forecast
- Publicity and Advertising Strategy
- Financial Projections and Costing
- BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy
Players in the solar panel manufacturing industry are responsible for manufacturing solar panels and solar cells and supply these products to solar panel installers and downstream residential, commercial and utility customers. Please note that a solar panel manufacturing company may also engage in the sale and installation of solar panels to end users.
If you have been keeping tabs with the solar panel manufacturing industry, you will agree that the industry has experienced only modest growth between 2012 and 2017. The industry has been beleaguered by high competition from low-cost Asian solar panel manufacturing companies and an appreciating US dollar, while the volatile prices of natural gas and steaming coal have decreased the cost of other forms of energy and shifted demand away from solar energy.
Going forward, the industry is expected to continue its modest growth due to increased demand for solar panels and cells. This projected rise in demand is expected to be the result of government programs, including an increase in the number of states with renewable portfolio standards.
The truth is that the solar panel manufacturing industry has galloped ahead in recent years as a result of the rapid technological developments in our world, and favorable government policies. Going forward, the demand for solar panel installation is projected to continue to experience rapid growth.
With the ongoing government aid in the form of tax credits and rebates, along with technological advances in solar energy, as well as the rising popularity of solar power purchase agreements (SPPAs), the revenue generated in the industry is expected to grow sharply.
The Solar Panel Manufacturing industry is indeed a large and growing industry especially in countries such as China, Japan, South Korea, India, Malaysia, Russia and the united states of America. Statistics has it that the Solar Panel Manufacturing industry in the United States of America is worth $1bn, with an estimated growth rate of 0.4 percent.
There are about 65 registered and licensed solar farm developer businesses in the United States and they are responsible for directly employing about 7,851 people. First solar is the leading player in this industry; they have the largest market share.
A report recently published by IBISWorld shows that the Solar Panel Manufacturing industry is in a declining phase of its life. Industry value added, which measures an industry’s contribution to the overall economy, is forecast to decrease at an annualized rate of 3.3 percent in the 10 years to 2022.
The report also stated that during the same period, US GDP is projected to grow at an annualized rate of 2.1 percent. As a result, this industry’s importance to the overall economy is decreasing, indicating a declining industry.
The report further stated that while government assistance to industry manufacturers and downstream customers has fueled the growth of solar power, most gains have been made in solar installation and solar power generation. Domestic manufacturers have performed poorly due to competition from imports, especially those from low-cost Asian countries like Malaysia and China.
Most people who have stakes in the industry will agree that the solar panel manufacturing industry has come to stay and of course it is one industry that plays key roles in the business world and in our homes because it is one eco – friendly way of generating power.
Over and above, the solar panel manufacturing industry is very open to any investor who has the required startup capital, acquired the required training, skills and perhaps professional certifications to start his or her own solar panel manufacturing plant.
Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC is a U.S based solar panel manufacturing company. We have been able to secure a standard and well – positioned government approved plant – facility in Corpus Christi – Texas. We are a solar panel manufacturing company that is also into after sales services such as solar panel installation, maintenance and repair that is set to compete in the highly competitive the solar panel manufacturing industry.
Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC will engage in the manufacturing of solar panels, solar cells, silicon modules and cells, thin-film modules and cells and other related solar panel installation, maintenance and repair services. Our business goal is to become one of the leading solar panel manufacturing companies in the United States and we will make sure that we will do all we can to compete favorably with leaders in the industry.
Our workers are going to be selected from a pool of certified and highly experienced solar panel engineers and technicians in and around Corpus Christi – Texas and also from any part of the United States of America as the business grows.
We will make sure that we take all the members of our workforce through the required training that will position them to meet the expectation of the company and to compete with leading solar panel manufacturing plants and solar panel installation, maintenance and repair companies in the United States.
At Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC, our client’s best interest will always come first, and everything we do will be guided by our values and professional ethics. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our client’s needs precisely and completely.
Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC is founded by Engr. Nelson Givens, a solar energy engineer par excellence who graduated from Illinois Institute of Technology (B.Engr.), and his friend and business partner for many years Lincoln Faraday.
They have a combine experience that can help them build Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC to favorably compete with other leading solar panel manufacturing plants in the United States of America and all around the globe.
Our Product and Services
Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC was established with the aim of maximizing profits in the Solar Panel Manufacturing industry.
We want to compete favorably with the leading solar panel manufacturing plants and of course solar panel installation, maintenance and repair companies in the United States which is why we have but in place a competent quality assurance team that will ensure that every solar panels that leaves of plant meet and even surpass our customers’ expectations and conform to international best practices.
We will work hard to ensure that Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC is not just accepted in Corpus Christi – Texas but also in other cities in the United States of America and other countries of the world. Our products and services are listed below;
- Manufacture solar panels
- Manufacture solar cells
- Silicon modules and cells
- Thin-film modules and cells
- Other related solar panel installation, maintenance and repair services
Our Mission and Vision Statement
- Our vision is to establish a world class solar panel manufacturing company whose products and brand will not only be accepted in Corpus Christi – Texas, but also in other cities in the United States of America and other countries of the world.
- Our mission is to manufacture standard solar panels that can be used by corporate organizations and households all around the United States of America and other countries of the world.
Our Business Structure
Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC, is a solar panel manufacturing company that intends starting small in Corpus Christi – Texas, but hopes to grow big in order to compete favorably with leading solar panel manufacturing companies both in the United States and on a global stage. We are aware of the importance of building a solid business structure that can support the kind of world class business we want to own.
At Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC, we will ensure that we hire people that are qualified, hardworking, creative, customer centric and are ready to work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stakeholders.
As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of five years or more as agreed by the board of trustees of the company. In view of the above, we have decided to hire qualified and competent hands to occupy the following positions;
- Chief Executive Officer
- Plant Manager/Head, Technical Services
- Human Resources and Admin Manager
- Sales and Marketing Executive
- Plant Technicians (Solar Panel Installation, Repair and Maintenance Engineers / Technicians (10))
- Client Service Executive
Job Roles and Responsibilities
Chief Executive Officer – CEO:
- Escalates management’s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions;
- Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals
- Responsible for providing direction for the business
- Generates, connects, and implements the organization’s vision, mission, and overall direction – i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization’s strategy.
- Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company
- Assesses the success of the organization
- Reports to the board
Plant Manager/Head, Technical Services
- Supervises the smooth running of the plant
- Attends to issues as project manager of the organization; works directly with employees
- Develops strategic plan by studying technological, and financial opportunities; presenting assumptions; recommending objectives
- Maintains quality service by establishing and enforcing organization standards
- Makes certain that the technical department perform efficiently, coordinate employee efforts, and facilitate communications between management and solar panel installation, repairs and maintenance engineers and technicians
- Ensures that the organization work in line with international best practices
Human Resources and Admin Manager
- Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization
- Designs job descriptions with KPI to drive performance management for clients
- Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders to review the effectiveness of HR Policies, Procedures and Processes
- Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products.
- Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs.
- Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process
- Carries out induction for new team members
- Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees
- Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments
Sales and Marketing Manager
- Manages external research and coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the organizations’ best customers and attract new ones
- Models demographic information and analyze the volumes of transactional data generated by customers
- Writes winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in line with organizations’ policy
- Responsible for handling business research, market surveys and feasibility studies for clients
- Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients
- Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales
- Creates new markets cum businesses for the organization
- Empowers and motivates the sales team to meet and surpass agreed targets
- Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization
- Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions.
- Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis.
- Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for one or more properties.
- Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies
- Responsible for administering payrolls
- Ensures compliance with taxation legislation
- Handles all financial transactions for the organization
- Serves as internal auditor for the organization.
Plant Technicians (Solar Panel Installation, Repair and Maintenance Engineers (2) and Technicians (8))
- Works with the team of engineers in manufacturing solar panels, solar cells, silicon modules and cells, thin-film modules and cells and other modules and cells
- Handles solar panel and accessories installation, solar tracking panel installation, ground mounted panel installation, fixed rack panel installation, and monitoring services
- Handles other related solar panel installation, maintenance and repair services as requested by clients
Client Service Executive
- Welcomes clients and potential clients by greeting them in person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries
- Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level
- Through interaction with clients on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and services
- Manages administrative duties assigned by the creative director in an effective and timely manner
- Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the organizations’ products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to clients when they make enquiries
Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC engaged the services of a core professional in the area of business consulting and structuring to assist our organization in building a well – structured solar panel manufacturing plant that can favorably compete in the highly competitive Solar Panel Manufacturing industry in the United States.
Part of what the team of business consultant did was to work with the management of our organization in conducting a comprehensive SWOT analysis for Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC. Here is a summary from the result of the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC;
We are a solar panel manufacturing company that is well – positioned to take advantage of government subsidies and other grants, we are game when it comes to development of new products and we have the ability to comply with environmental regulations.
So also, we have a team of certified and highly trained and experience solar panel installation, maintenance and repair engineers and technicians, a team with excellent qualifications and experience in various niche areas in the solar panel manufacturing industry. Aside from the synergy that exists in our carefully selected workforce, our services will be guided by best practices in the industry.
As a new solar farm and solar panel manufacturing company in Corpus Christi – Texas, it might take some time for our organization to break into the market and gain acceptance especially from top profile clients (solar panel distributors) in the already highly competitive Solar Panel Manufacturing industry; that is perhaps our major weakness.
Another weakness is that we may not have the required cash to pump into promoting our business the way we would want to.
No doubt, the opportunities in The Solar Panel Manufacturing industry is massive considering the support from the government and of course the number of individuals and corporate organizations who are now switching over to alternative energy.
In the United States, even with tariffs against Chinese manufacturers in place, the value of imports has risen. Increased government initiatives will help spur demand from downstream customers. As a solar panel manufacturing company, we are ready to take advantage of any opportunity that is available in the industry.
High import competition has been the main threat to the industry over the five-year period. Just like any other business, other threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn. Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new solar farm or solar panel manufacturing company in same location where our target market exists and who may want to adopt same Business model like us.
- Market Trends
If you are keeping tabs with happenings in the solar panel manufacturing industry, you will agree that the demand for solar panel powered devices has skyrocketed many thanks to substantial government support. So also, technological advancements in solar panel construction will definitely lead to a greater supply of low-cost panels, making solar panels more accessible for individual consumers, also lowering demand.
Another trend is that the solar panel manufacturing industry has galloped ahead in recent years as a result of the rapid technological developments in our world, falling solar panel costs and favorable government policy. In the coming years, demand for solar panel installation is projected to continue growing.
Ongoing government aid in the form of tax credits and rebates, along with technological advances in solar energy, as well as the rising popularity of solar power purchase agreements (SPPAs), are expected to help revenue grow sharply going forward.
The demand for new solar panels has been backed primarily by government incentives such as the Solar Investment Tax Credit (ITC), which encouraged private investment into solar technologies by offering tax credits.
With these incentives, solar panels and other solar-power development projects have been built at accelerating rates over the past five years. Because solar technology is not yet cost-competitive with other types of energy used in electricity generation, such as coal and natural gas, government incentives have been the driving force behind industry growth.
Our Target Market
Before building our solar panel manufacturing plant in Corpus Christi – Texas, we conducted a market survey and feasibility studies and we are certain that there is a wide range of clients who cannot successfully run their businesses without purchasing solar panels.
In view of that, we have created strategies that will enable us reach out to various corporate organizations and households who we know can’t do without our product. Below is a list of the people and organizations that will market our products and services to;
- Banks, Insurance Companies and other related Financial Institutions
- Corporate Organizations
- Manufacturers and Distributors
- Real Estate Owners, Developers, and Contractors
- Research and Development Companies
- Schools (High Schools, Colleges and Universities)
- Sport Facilities
- Religious Organizations
- Branding and Advertising agencies
In as much as the market for solar panel is growing all over the globe, you must adopt a workable marketing strategy to be able to make good sales and huge profits. We have solid plans to go into contract agreements with those who manufacture products that use solar energy so that we can be in charge of supplying solar panels to them.
We know that we can also make more sales if we work with our customers to produce customized solar panels that can suit their purposes. There are regions where solar panels sell like wild fire and we will ensure that we push our products to these regions.
Solar panels come in different sizes, shapes, and capacities; hence, our solar panel manufacturing companies take all these factors into account so that we can be able to meet the needs of various categories of customers.
Our competitive advantage lies in the power of our team. We have a team of certified, highly trained and experience solar panel installation, maintenance and repair engineers and technicians, a team with excellent qualifications and experience in various niche areas in the solar panel industry.
Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category in the industry. It will enable them to be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our business aims and objectives.
SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY
We are mindful of the fact that there are stiff competitions in the solar panel manufacturing industry; hence we have been able to hire some of the best marketing experts to handle our marketing.
Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experience in the solar panel installation, maintenance and repair services industry and they will be trained on a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall business goal of Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC.
Our corporate goal is to grow Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC to become one of the top 10 solar panel manufacturing brands in the United States of America which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force to reckon with not only in Corpus Christi – Texas but also in other cities in the United States of America.
Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC is set to make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to attract clients;
- Introduce our solar panel manufacturing company and products by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to manufacturing companies, households, corporate organizations and other stakeholders
- Promptness in bidding for solar panel supply, installation, repair, and maintenance contract from the government and other cooperate organizations
- Advertise our business in relevant technology magazines, newspapers, TV and radio stations
- List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories)
- Attend relevant international and local expos, seminars, and business fairs et al
- Create different packages for different categories of clients in order to work with their budgets and still deliver excellent services
- Leverage on the internet to promote our business
- Engage direct marketing approach
- Encourage word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients
Sources of Income
Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the solar panel manufacturing industry and we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to meet and surpass the expectations of all our clients.
Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC will generate income by selling and offering the following solar panel installation, maintenance and repair related services;
- Manufacture solar panels
- Manufacture solar cells
- Silicon modules and cells
- Thin-film modules and cells
- Other modules and cells
- Other related solar panel installation, maintenance and repair services
One thing is certain; there would always be organizations and individuals who would need solar panels. We are well positioned to take on the available market in the solar panel manufacturing industry and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough profits from the first six months of operation and grow our solar panel manufacturing company to enviable heights.
We have been able to critically examine the solar panel manufacturing market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projections are based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to similar startups in Corpus Christi – Texas.
Below is the sales projection for Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC, it is based on the location of our business and of course the wide range of our products, services and target market;
- First Year: $750,000
- Second Year: $1.5M
- Third Year: $2.5M
N.B: This projection was done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor offering same solar panel designs and solar panel installation, maintenance and repair services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher.
- Our Pricing Strategy
At Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC we will keep the prices of our products and services below the average market rate for all of our customers by keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in advance from major distributors and corporate organizations who would hire our services.
In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to all our customers at regular intervals. The prices of our product and services will be same as what is obtainable in the United States’ open market.
- Payment Options
The payment policy adopted by Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by the financial rules and regulation of the United States of America.
Here are the payment options that Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC will make available to her clients;
- Payment via bank transfer
- Payment with cash
- Payment via Point of Sale Machine (POS)
- Payment via online bank transfer
- Payment via check
- Payment via bank draft
In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for purchase of solar panels without any stress on their part. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials.
Publicity and Advertising Strategy
We have been able to work with our brand and publicity consultant to help us map out publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of our target market.
We are set to become the number one choice for both corporate and individual clients in the whole of the United States and beyond which is why we have made provisions for effective publicity and advertisement of our solar panel manufacturing company.
Below are the platforms we intend to leverage on to promote and advertise Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC;
- Place adverts on both print (newspapers and magazines) and electronic media platforms
- Sponsor relevant community based events / programs
- Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like Instagram, Facebook, twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to promote our services
- Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Corpus Christi – Texas
- Engage in roadshow from time to time in targeted neighborhoods
- Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas
- List our solar energy company in local directories/yellow pages
- Advertise our solar panel manufacturing company in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site.
- Ensure that all our staff members wear our branded shirts and all our vehicles are well branded with our company logo et al.
Financial Projections and Costing
When it comes to building a solar panel manufacturing plant, you should be ready to spend loads of cash because it is indeed a capital-intensive business. When it comes to setting up a business, the tools and equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and can be overlooked.
As for the detailed cost analysis for starting a standard solar panel manufacturing company; it might differ in other countries due to the value of their money. However, this is what it would cost us to set up Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC in the United of America;
- Business incorporating fees in the United States of America will cost – $750
- The budget for Liability insurance, permits and license will cost – $3,500
- Acquiring a standard government approved plant – facility large enough to fit into our design will cost – $250,000.
- The amount required to purchase the needed solar energy equipment, tool box and repair equipment – $150,000
- Equipping our office facility (computers, printers, projectors, markers, servers / internet facility, furniture, telephones, filing cabinets, and electronics) will cost – $30,000
- Amount required to purchase the needed software applications to run our business – $3,500
- Launching an official Website will cost – $500
- Amount need to pay bills and staff members for at least 2 to 3 months – $150,000
- Additional Expenditure such as Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions will cost – $5,000
Going by the report from the market research and feasibility studies conducted, we will need about $750,000 to successfully set up a medium scale but standard solar panel manufacturing company in the United States of America.
Generating Startup Capital for Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC
Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC is a business that will be owned and managed by Engr. Nelson Givens and his friend and business partner for many years Lincoln Faraday. They are the sole financiers of the business which is why they decided to restrict the sourcing of the startup capital for the business to just three major sources.
These are the areas we intend generating our startup capital;
- Generate part of the startup capital from personal savings and sale of his stocks
- Generate part of the startup capital from friends and other extended family members
- Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the bank (loan facility)
N.B: We have been able to generate about $250,000 (Personal savings $200,000 and soft loan from family members $50,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $500,000 from our bank. All the papers and document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited.
BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy
The future of a business lies in the number of loyal customers that they have, the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If all of these factors are missing from a business, then it won’t be too long before the business closes shop.
One of our major goals of starting Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running.
We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to sell our solar panels and offer our solar panel installation, maintenance and repair services a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in the market and we are well prepared to survive on lower profit margin for a while.
Generation Next® Solar Technologies, LLC will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re training of our workforce is at the top burner.
We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of our dreams.
- Business Name Availability Check: Completed
- Business Incorporation: Completed
- Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in the United States: Completed
- Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed
- Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress
- Securing government approved plant – facility: Completed
- Application for business license and permit: Completed
- Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed
- Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed
- Generating part of the startup capital from the founders: Completed
- Writing of Business Plan: Completed
- Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed
- Drafting of Contract Documents: In Progress
- Design of Logo for the business: Completed
- Purchase of repair and installation tools and equipment: Completed
- Graphic Designs and Printing of Promotional Materials: Completed
- Recruitment of employees: In Progress
- Purchase of the needed furniture, office equipment, software applications, electronic appliances and facility facelift: In progress
- Creating Official Website for the business: In Progress
- Creating Awareness for the business: In Progress
- Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress