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Bank Business Plan [Sample Template]

Open a Bank Business

Are you about starting a bank? If YES, here is a complete sample commercial bank business plan template & feasibility report you can use for FREE.

Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a bank. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample bank business marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for banks. So let’s proceed to the business planning section.

Why Start a Bank?

Starting your own bank is a huge step and needs a good deal of planning and preparation. Extensive information about the founders, the business plan, senior management team, finances, capital adequacy, risk management infrastructure, and other relevant factors must be provided to the appropriate authorities.

There are also a number of legal regulations and requirements that must be fulfilled in order to start your own bank. Some of these requirements are dependent upon the regulations in the niche you wish to establish your bank.

As hard as the task of starting a bank can be, anyone who wishes to start their own bank is able to enjoy the many benefits of making a major investment. Although the process of registering and setting up a bank involves lengthy planning and a relatively complex licensing procedure, once it is completed, the owner is able to conduct financial activity in their chosen niche.

Note that the very first step when starting your bank is to choose the niche and type of activity which you wish to engage in. Before you obtain the necessary licensing from the financial regulatory body, it is very crucial you identify whether you wish to specialize in investment banking or trade finance.

The advantages of owning your own bank are huge and include the potential to make large profits during a short period.

Note that if you know your target market and your target market’s specific requirements, you will be in a better position to provide a range of attractive services. To successfully start and run this business, it is advised you seek the help of a professional consultancy firm.

Through the advice and guidance of expert consultants, you will be able to establish a banking institution in a professional manner. Also have it in mind that any proposed bank must first receive the approval of a federal or state banking charter.

Before granting a charter, the chartering regulator must determine that the applicant bank has a reasonable chance for success and will operate in a safe and sound manner.

Then, the proposed bank must obtain approval for deposit insurance from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Additional approvals are required from the Federal Reserve if, at formation, a holding company would control the new bank or a state-chartered bank would become a member of the Federal Reserve.

A Sample Bank Business Plan Template

1. Industry Overview

According to global banking industry reports, part of the broad financial services market, bank credit remain the leading market segment, with around 60% of the overall market in terms of value. Statistics has shown that the EU is the largest regional market, with over 57% of the global market.

Note that the economic recession that began in 2008 affected the industry and resulted in the crash of several financial institutions, which in turn led to the examination of practices and deployment of new guidelines in the banking industry.

But reports have it that the sector is beginning to rebound, and cross-border investment is one area contributing to recovery, with a few big banks dominating certain national markets. Advantages of cross-border practices include economies of scale, though institutions must compete with established domestic banks.

It’s very important to state that in the world retail banking and bank lending sectors, mortgage lending represents the leading market segment, accounting for almost 76% of the overall market in terms of value. Other key segments of the banking industry include private banking and payments business.

Note that in the US banking sector, experts believe that market growth will be driven by cross-border expansion due to the breaking down of obstacles to cross-border investment.

Competition between international banks is also expected to aid market growth along with the introduction of new products, reduction of costs and launching of new services. Report also has it that mobile and internet banking are becoming increasingly intertwined, especially due to the advent and success of smartphones. This provides consumers with convenient access to internet banking.

Have it in mind that the global mobile internet market will continue to drive the expansion of the mobile banking services sector. Report has shown that banking institutions are responding by launching downloadable applications and encouraging consumers to bank online and through mobile devices by rolling out mobile and internet banking services.

2. Executive Summary

Apex Investment Bank, LLC (AIB LLC) is a Portland Oregon based investment bank that will provide investment packages, underwriting, proprietary trading, and investment management for its investors. Our objective at AIB LLC is to create value for owners, employees, and investors through the establishment of an investment bank designed for the Third Generation.

This Generation is explicitly defined in the ground breaking research effort by Lincoln Swan & Co., Inc. and Netley Strategic business Group as a stage in the investment industry requiring a special set of skills for success. We at AIB LLC have leveraged this study, with more other studies, and perhaps most importantly, our own experience in the industry, to define a plan for the success of our clients.

Portland’s location is beneficial for several industries. Relatively low energy cost, accessible resources, north–south and east–west Interstates, international air terminals, large marine shipping facilities, and both west coast intercontinental railroads are all economic advantages.

AIB LLC will be structured as a Limited Liability Company with excellent plans to make use of industry research performed by one of our founding entrepreneurs, Solomon Drane during his professional career in investment management research.

Within the past three years, Solomon Drane has conducted research visits at the investment offices of over 80 companies. He has also held countless meetings with key investment professionals from around the globe either in person or via telephone conference.

We at AIB LLC plan to offer our clients the opportunity to assume minority ownership positions in exchange for contributions to our operating capital and for providing seed assets to establish the investment products described herein.

It is very important to state that this document alone does not create an offer of any type, nor does it give any guarantee, financial, or otherwise. This is a well detailed business plan designed to strategically dictate AIB LLC plans and visions for the next five years. It is open to correction or improvement within or after the specified time.

3. Our Products and Services

We at AIB LLC will provide investment packages and underwrite securities for sale to private investors and the general public among companies that are seeking to raise capital. At the onset of operations, we at AIB LLC will solely seek to sell debt instruments on behalf of our customers.

The standard fee for this service is 8% of the total underwritten instrument. We at AIB LLC will also solicit capital from accredited investors with the purpose of making use of this capital to make investment marketable securities. Our goal is to generate compounded annual returns of 30% to 35% per year on capital invested into our Bank’s portfolio holdings. We also plan to make sure that our management retains a 25% ownership interest at AIB LLC.

4. Our Mission and Vision Statement

  • Our vision at AIB LLC is to develop into a large scale investment bank that will provide underwriting income, advisory income, dividend income, capital appreciation, and interest income to investors.
  • Our mission at AIB LLC is to ensure that investment decisions are implemented quickly and efficiently across all portfolios, to also make sure a trading research and rotation is used to avoid any type of systematic advantage or disadvantage an account may experience.

Our Business Structure

We at AIB LLC understand that the strength of our management team and board of directors is perhaps the most important factor in starting a bank and effectively providing for its future success. We also found out through our detailed research that for a new bank charter to be approved for us, all our senior management team must be experienced bankers with a history of relevant success.

The more reason we made sure our board of directors are made up of individuals with successful careers in business, banking, and other fields, and have representation in the necessary disciplines.

We also understand the role of the board and management as investors and how important they are. Regulators and other investors will look to the investment of these directors and senior officers as an important sign of their commitment to the bank.

We also understand that the typical investment bank is operated on a rigid, strict hierarchy, than most corporate or financial institutions. We have taken our time to analyse our market and what we need that is why we have decided to start with the listed workforce.

  • Managing director
  • Senior vice president
  • Vice president
  • Investment Banking Associate
  • Investment Banking Analyst
  • Marketing manager
  • Accountant
  • Cleaner
  • Security man

5. Job Roles and Responsibilities

Managing director

  • Broaden and/or enhance the bank’s industry coverage,
  • Will partner with the firm’s leadership to grow and build the bank
  • Will tirelessly work to deliver superior results to the firms’ clients
  • Participate as a key member of the senior leadership team, contributing to the strategy, growth and success of the firm
  • Lead efforts on sell-side and buy-side acquisition assignments, refinancing, recapitalization and restructuring assignments
  • Interact seamlessly with prospects, clients, acquirors, investors and attorneys on all aspects of a M&A deal and/or capital raise
  • Direct a team of junior bankers to support all elements of deal sourcing and execution.

Senior Vice president

  • Involved in executing and managing equity offerings that will include the drafting and structuring of material, logistics management, issue identification, its analysis and the resolution.
  • Responsible for mergers and acquisitions and manages the creation of buyers list, their contacts, drafting the relevant material, financial analysis and private equity placement.
  • Researches and identify deal opportunities by formulating and issuing factual financial analyses and creating different kinds of financial plans.
  • Involved in pitching or selling the organization’s products and services to new clients and may be involved in other projects as well.
  • May participate in due diligence meetings with non-proprietary or proprietary investment managers and create relevant call reports that include their opinions.
  • May be involved in analyzing the investment products and screening them by making effective use of a variety of investment data and the relevant software applications
  • Monitors the investment products and their performance.
  • Analyses the relevant statistics to evaluate the appropriateness of the product.
  • Manages relationships with the investment management organizations and regularly gets him/her updated by getting valuable information from them.
  • Attends industry conferences and training sessions so as to present innovative ideas to clients
  • Responsible for providing leadership and overseeing the work of the subordinate members.

Vice president

  • Call on prospective clients such as privately held business owners, publicly traded companies and private equity firms.
  • Conceptualize, organize and deliver new business presentations.
  • Lead transaction implementation across industry groups.
  • Manage, educate and develop banking analysts and associates.
  • Develop marketing and new business presentations.
  • Monitor financial analysis and modeling.
  • Perform and analyze industry research.
  • Create client presentations, proposals, engagement letters term sheets, legal agreements and offer memorandums.
  • Create and foster client relationships.

Investment Banking Associate

  • Managing and assisting in the preparation of financial models and business valuations
  • Creating client marketing presentations
  • Attending client meetings
  • Conducting industry and company-specific due diligence related to transactions
  • Drafting memoranda for sale assignments
  • Assisting in the preparation of fairness opinions
  • Attending drafting sessions for equity offerings
  • Creating marketing materials for our equity sales organization
  • Assisting in the development and continued cultivation of client relationships
  • Developing an understanding of the underlying trends that affect equity capital markets.

Investment Banking Analyst

  • Development of various types of financial models to value debt and equity for mergers, acquisitions, and capital raising transactions.
  • Perform various valuation methods: comparable companies, precedents, and DCF.
  • Develop recommendations for product offerings, private equity transactions, mergers and acquisitions, and valuations.
  • Conduct preparation and review of materials used in the financing of clients, including investment memoranda, management presentations and pitchbooks.
  • Develop relationships with new and existing clients in order to expand the business.
  • Perform due diligence, research, analysis, and documentation of live transactions.
  • Create presentations for client portfolios.

Sales and Marketing director

  • In charge of organizing external research and coordinating all the internal sources of information to retain the organizations’ best customers and attract new ones
  • Expected to understand, prioritizes, and reaches out to new partners, and business opportunities et al
  • Tasked with understanding development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts
  • It’s the job of the director to supervise implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients
  • Keep all customer contact and information
  • Represents the company in strategic meetings
  • Aid to increase sales and growth for the business


  • Keep note and make sure the toiletries and supplies don’t run out of stock
  • Ensures that both the interior and exterior of the firm are always clean
  • Handles any other duty as assigned by the Vice president

Security guard

  • The security guard is in charge of protecting the firm and its environs
  • Also controls traffic and organize parking
  • He is Tasked with giving security tips when necessary
  • Should also Patrol around the building on a 24 hours basis
  • It’s expected to give security reports weekly

6. SWOT Analysis

We at AIB LLC understand that the very first step of starting a new bank is to build a strong business and strategic plan. We believe that this plan must consider the proposed business of the new bank, its financial and managerial resources and prospects for success, the convenience and needs of the public, and the effect of competition.

This strong business and strategic plan supported by detailed financial projections and appropriate policies and procedures form the basis of successful regulatory applications of a bank charter.

We at AIB LLC hope to establish a lucrative investment bank that will serve the needs of our clients and also bring in profits for our founders. We took time to conduct a detailed SWOT analysis for AIB LLC. The details and results are explained below.

  • Strength

According to our SWOT analysis, our strength at AIB LLC rests on the expertise and experience of our management team. With the experience and discipline of our team, our SWOT analysis predict we can build a robust company profile even before bidding for investment banking contracts from corporate organizations.

  • Weakness

As the investment banking industry expands and grows in revenue and market reach, so does the level of competition in the industry. Due to the very low barriers to entry, any individual or business may register itself as an investment bank after completing the proper examinations and filings.

  • Opportunities

The banking sector has become one of the fastest growing business sectors in the U.S. economy. Note that computerized technologies allow financial firms to operate advisory, investment banking, and brokerage services anywhere in the country.

In time past, most financial firms needed to be within a close proximity to Wall Street in order to provide their clients the highest level of service. This is no longer the case as a firm can access almost every facet of the financial markets through Internet connections and specialized trading and investment management software.

  • Threat

According to our SWOT analysis, the risks we will be facing include;

  • Market Risk – A high correlation exists between the growth rate of the investment industry and the performance of equity markets. While evidence suggests an attractive environment for equities in the future, no forecasts can be made with absolute certainty.
  • Performance Risk – It is understood that our products are measured by their performance. Although the goal is to achieve competitive performance over three to five-year time periods, short-term periods may result in underperformance based on the critical measures.
  • Business/Operating Risk – Beyond the third full year of operation, assets under management must produce revenues that will be sufficient to support operations in their entirety. Otherwise our options will be to acquire additional funding or to reduce costs.


  • Market Trend

Experts believe this industry will continue to experience growth in all parts of the world especially in developed countries such as united states of America, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, South Korea, Japan, China et al.

According to industry data, the industry brings in a whooping sum of $105 billion annually with an annual growth rate projected at -13.0 percent within 2011 and 2016. Although the number of industry activities has not deviated dramatically over the five-year period, the share of revenue that each activity accounts for has undergone substantial volatility.

It is believed that the products and services in the Investment industry differ considerably on a company-by-company basis, largely depending on operator size.

It’s very important to state that small and medium size investment banks target niche industries and small companies and depend more heavily on traditional investment banking activities such as underwriting and financial advisory. Alternatively, major industry players earn a substantial share of revenue from trading activities.

Note that one factor that attract entrepreneurs to the investment banking business despite the huge capital requirements and the high risk is that the venture is profitable. We have made plans to always stay ahead of industry trend and also to get the required certifications and license and also meet the standard capitalization for an investment bank in the United States.

8. Our Target Market

Our target market at AIB LLC will be greatly dependent on the phase of our product in its development cycle. Have it in mind that most of the marketing opportunities will happen beyond the first year of product development. But we remain very certain that some initial opportunities do exist.

For instance, our bank can utilize its transfer agent’s distribution services, which would put the product in a highly visible online platform. Note that extra opportunities include marketing to programs that invest specifically in “emerging managers.”

We at AIB LLC also believe that the high net worth and retail marketplace can be accessed to a limited degree, even in the early stages, through similar innovative opportunities and already-established relationships with clients. Just like manufacturing organizations, investment businesses are expected to develop products to provide to their customers.

Our hallmark product offering will be our well designed Market Equity strategy, an investment product offering based on the evidence supporting investor’s desires to outperform the overall market via a single, diversified vehicle and to avoid the need to create complex investment structures.

Our competitive advantage

Our Competitive Advantage at AIB LLC is specified in the three P’s commonly associated with investment firms: People, Process, and Performance. The first two determine the latter. Although our business plan highlights many areas (market research, financial projections, etc.), we believe there are two areas that will surely determine the level of success achieved by AIB LLC.

We believe that the very first is the people. Bright, energetic, talented, and knowledgeable individuals compose the core of the team we have at AIB LLC. We were able to note from our rigorous research that the most qualified investment professionals are attracted to efficient investment banks that are free from bureaucracy. Process is the second most important element of our bank.

We have made sure cutting-edge research will be provided in support of our portfolio management process. The implementation of our process is maximized by outsourcing virtually all functions not related to portfolio management and research, thereby making full use of the bank’s human capital.


We at AIB LLC understand that the key to marketing an investment product is to create a successful and attractive product, develop a pattern of success, and show that pattern can be repeated in the future. After that, successful products should be aggressively marketed if capacity to manage additional assets exists.

Although a three to five-year period tend to seem like a century compared to the technology world, it is really quite reasonable considering the fact that private equity investors in limited partnership vehicles are generally satisfied with a 10-year waiting period that exists prior to a return of their capital investment.

AIB hallmark investment product will be the AIB Total Market Equity strategy and will be initially offered through an SEC registered mutual fund. Technological advancements also permit for other economically feasible distribution channels such as separately managed portfolios for large account sizes.

Sources of Income

We believe that our primary income at AIB LLC will come from providing our clients with investment packages, securities underwriting and advisory services in regards to mergers and acquisitions. AIB LLC will earn substantial fees for the equity and debt instruments that it underwrites and then resells to the general public.

We also believe that we will engage primarily in debt instruments among middle market companies that will be sold on a best efforts basis. This will place minimal risk on our capital reserve.

We will also earn substantial per hour management and deal fees regarding advisory services for mergers and acquisition operations. We also plan to make investments directly into marketable securities and hedge funds that specialize in specific areas of trading.

Our intention is to develop a number of trading strategies including options trading, LEAPs trading, long position/short position trading, and other methods of trading that will produce small but consistent gains on a weekly and monthly basis.

We plan to engage in a covered call strategy that would allow the fund to assure return on investment for securities that are held for an extended period of time.

10. Sales Forecast

We at AIB LLC expect to turn over approximately 1/3 of our portfolio each year. We strongly believe that this is consistent with an average holding period of three years. Generally, we would love for all holdings to be long-term investments, so we will identify stocks we will be comfortable with if we were “locked in” for three years.

This forces us to look beyond short-term noise in quarter-to-quarter results and focus on the big picture, such as our management’s vision for the future and their probability of executing their plan.

11. Publicity and Advertising Strategy

We understand the importance of creating a good publicity plan that will boost our brand and help us stay consistent in the industry.

That is why we contacted Advertising Experts called Kinks Global, to help us create publicity and advertising strategies that will help us at AIB LLC to attract and keep our target audience interested. Listed below is the summary of strategies detailed by Kinks Global for our Bank.

  • Place adverts on both print (community based newspapers and magazines) and electronic media platforms; we will also advertise AIB LLC on financial magazines, real estate and other relevant financial programs on radio and TV
  • Introduce AIB LLC by sending introductory letters with our business brochure to individuals, households, corporate organizations, schools, players in the real estate sector, and all the people of Alexandria.
  • Advertise AIB LLC in important financial and business related magazines, newspapers, TV and radio stations.
  • Place AIB LLC on yellow pages ads (local directories)
  • Attend important international and local real estate, finance and business expos, seminars, and business fairs et al
  • Encourage word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients
  • Sponsor relevant community based events / programs
  • Leverage various online platforms to promote the business. This will make it easier for people to enter our website with just a click of the mouse. We will take advantage of the internet and social media platforms such as; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to promote our brand
  • Place our billboards at strategic locations
  • Share our fliers and handbills in target areas all around Portland

12. Our Pricing Strategy

Firms in this industry get funds from investors who are interested in investing, and charge them for assisting them in investing their funds over a period of time as agreed by both parties. Even though investment banking is a very risky venture, it is still profitable, hence there is an agreement between the investment bank and the client as it relates to the commission they are expected to make from the deal.

We at AIB LLC plan to charge based on percentage and also a fix consultancy/business administrative fee. We believe that in the coming years and as we progress, that we can decide to improvise or adopt any business process and structure that will guarantee us good return on investment (ROI), efficiency and flexibility.

  • Payment options

We plan to make sure we provide our clients with a wide variety of payment options for our services. We understand the diverse platforms people prefer and we plan to provide a suitable platform that will suit all equally. Listed below are the payment options that we will make available to AIB LLC.

  • Payment through bank transfer
  • Payment through online bank transfer
  • Payment with check
  • Payment with bank draft

13. Startup Expenditure (Budget)

We have noted that banks are expected raise their initial capital from investors after completing regulatory processes before they can open. In the industry, all insured banks must comply with the capital adequacy guidelines of their primary federal regulator.

The guidelines require a bank to demonstrate that it will have enough capital to support its risk profile, operations, and future growth even in the event of unexpected losses.

We believe that new established banks are generally subject to additional criteria that remain in place until the bank’s operations become well established and profitable. We at AIB LLC plan for an effective minimum capital of between $15 million to $25 million.

Successful capital generation in these amounts is generally the result of a well formulated and executed plan for developing local and other investors in the bank. We have analyzed our needs and we plan to spend our startup funds judiciously. Outlined below is a detailed financial projection and costing for starting AIB LLC;

  • Price of incorporating the Business in the United States of America – $750.
  • Our budget for basic insurance policy covers, permits and business license – $200,000
  • Acquiring a suitable Office facility opposite the city hall at Portland Delta State (Re – Construction of the facility inclusive) – $75,000
  • The budget envisaged for capitalization (working capital) – $30 million
  • Budget for settling other legal processes (acquiring business license and all city dues et al) – $2,500
  • Equipping the office with suitable and standard equipment(computers, software applications, printers, fax machines, furniture, telephones, filing cabins, safety gadgets and electronics et al) – $10,000
  • Purchasing of the required software applications (CRM software, Accounting and Bookkeeping software and Payroll software et al) – $10,500
  • Launching AIB LLC official Website – $600
  • Our expenditure for paying employees for 3 months plus utility bills – $36, 000
  • Other Additional Expenditure (Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions et al) – $4,000
  • Miscellaneous: $10,000

With the above detailed cost analysis, we need $349,350 and $30 million working capital to successfully set up AIB LLC.

  • Generating Startup Capital for AIB LLC

AIB LLC is a licensed and registered investment bank which is capitalized by five principal investors, Mr Solomon Drane, Mrs Agnes Church, Dr Mel Stanford, Mr Kelvin Cruff and Prof. John Thomas.

Our founders plan to become the very first financiers of the business, although we have plans of selling shares and stocks as the business matures. Due to less constraint in financing, we have outlined the few ways we can acknowledge funding. These ways may include;

  • Generate part of the startup capital from the five principal investors
  • Agreeing to angel investors
  • Apply for business loan from the Federal Reserve Bank (if need be)

Note: AIB LLC has been able to generate an enormous $15 million from its five principal investors, who aligned and individually dished out $3,000,000 each. We have also aligned with angel investors to inject $20 million into AIB LLC, with the hope of making profits and establishing a solid business.

14. Sustainability and Expansion Strategy

Our primary goal of the first full quarter of operation (February- May 2019) is to secure funding from outside sources. Before that, our management team at AIB LLC has a budget of $300,000 to be used for finding investors, forming a legal LLC, and registering the bank and its products with the SEC.

The amount sought from investors will be approximately $20 million, which should see the business through to profitability near the completion of the third year. We at AIB LLC believe that this break-even point equates roughly to an asset under management level of approximately $130 million.

One can easily see that even modest points beyond this break-even level can be highly lucrative. It is also important to note that excess cash will be re-deployed into the business once a level of sustainability in revenue has been reached. Our primary purpose for this type of reinvestment would solely focus on a “second stage” marketing plan to increase distribution.

We also believe that a word of note is also warranted as it relates to the cash flow statement of our bank. Have it in mind that one appealing feature of the investment industry is that collection of fees (i.e. revenues) is highly certain because fees are frequently charged directly to the client’s accounts (or to the mutual fund).

That is the more reason why revenue certainty is very high and is directly related to the amount of assets under management.

Also note that common practice in the investment industry is to bill at each quarter-end. For instance, our annual fee of 1% would be applied to our clients’ accounts five times per year at 0.20%. We at AIB LLC can strongly attest to the fact that economic motivation is great.

Growth rates for the investment industry are projected to range from 25% to 24% in each of the next three years. We believe that the demographic, economic, political and social evidence supporting these projections make this industry one of the most attractive industries due to the high degree of certainty in the estimates.

We at AIB LLC believe that the certainty coupled with the above average growth rate differentiates this opportunity from other venture investments. Also have it in mind that our conservative estimates outline a plan-to-profitability over a period much shorter than typical venture investments that sometimes need up to ten years to make profits.

Check List/Milestone

  • Business Name Availability Check: Completed
  • Business Incorporation: Completed
  • Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed
  • Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed
  • Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress
  • Application for business license and permit: Completed
  • Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed
  • Conducting feasibility studies: Completed
  • Leasing, renovating and equipping our facility: Completed
  • Generating part of the start – up capital from the founder: Completed
  • Applications for Loan from our Bankers: In Progress
  • Writing of Business Plan: Completed
  • Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed
  • Drafting of Contract Documents: In Progress
  • Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed
  • Printing of Promotional Materials: Completed
  • Recruitment of employees: In Progress
  • Purchase of software applications, furniture, office equipment, electronic appliances and facility facelift: In progress
  • Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress
  • Creating Awareness for the business (Business PR): In Progress
  • Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress
  • Establishing business relationship with banks, financial lending institutions, vendors and key players in the industry: In Progress