Are you about starting an Irish pub business? If YES, here is a complete sample Irish pub business plan template & feasibility report you can use for FREE. Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting an Irish pub business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample Irish pub marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for Irish pub companies. So let’s proceed to the business planning section.
Why Start an Irish Pub Business?
Although it is starting to become trendy in recent times, but Irish pub is a business that is as old as the bar business itself. Loads of people are now identifying themselves with the Irish pub theme.
If you are an aspiring entrepreneur and you are interested in starting a bar related business, then you should consider opening an Irish pub especially if you live in a city that attracts tourists from all across the world. It is a business that has proven to be highly successful if well-positioned.
If you are sure that this type of business is what you truly want to do after you must have conducted your market research and feasibility studies, then the next step to follow is to write a good business plan; a detailed blue print of how you intend raising your seed capital, setting up the business, managing the flow of the business, sorting out tax and marketing your services.
The truth is that it is one thing to have a fantastic idea cum business plan but it is another thing for the business plan to translate to profits, which is why it is important to assemble a team if you want to be successful with your Irish pub business; you can hardly run this type of business alone.
Below is a sample Irish pub business plan template that can help you to successfully write your own with little or no difficulty.
A Sample Irish Pub Business Plan Template
1. Industry Overview
An Irish pub is a facility that is licensed to serve alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises. An ideal Irish pub is characterized by a unique culture that is centered around a casual and friendly atmosphere, hearty food and drink, Irish sports, and traditional Irish music.
The fact that people are beginning to associate with Irish pub as led to the Irish pub theme spreading beyond Ireland to other countries of the world most especially the united states of America.
It is important to state that the Irish pub business falls under the nightclub and bar industry and in the United States of America just like in most countries of the world, the nightclub and bar industry is a very lucrative industry. In the United States alone, the night club and bar industry generate a whooping sum of $20 billion in revenue annually from about 45,000 established and recognized bars and night clubs.
The distilled spirits industry generates around $100 billion in United States of America. For those that run bars and night clubs, the major sources of revenue generation are the sale of assorted beers, distilled spirits, liquor, martinis, wine, food and non – alcoholic beverages.
Alcoholic drinks which is the major selling point of bars and nightclubs accounting for 37 percent of the revenue generated by nightclubs in the United States is manufactured by more than 3,000 breweries (both conventional and microbrewery).
Statistics has it that the United States of America produced about 196 million barrels (23.0 GL) of beer in 2012 alone, and consumed roughly 28 million US gallons (110 L) of beer per capita annually, and a large percentage of these beers are sold in bars and night clubs.
In 2011, the United States was ranked fifteenth in the world in per capita consumption, while total consumption was second only to China. This goes to show that bar and night club business is indeed a very lucrative business in the United States.
Although people still gather to socialize in bars and night clubs just as they have always done in time past, but with factors such as driving while intoxicated and increase in crime rates, the drinking pattern in bar is being affected.
Also, the growing health concern toward the end of the 20th century was part of what redefined non – alcohol consumption in the US. In essence, the rate at which people consume beers and other drinks is what determines the growth of the bar and night club industry.
Any entrepreneur who wants to start an Irish pub business in the US would be confronted with tough competition. The truth is that you will not only compete with other pubs in your location or city, but you would be competing with every other entertainment option such as nightclubs and bars, restaurants, and casinos et al.
For instance, people go to bars to drink and socialize and they tend to get more when they go to night clubs or other entertainment hubs. In night clubs, people do not only drink and socialize, but they also dance if they choose to and get entertained.
In as much as starting an Irish pub business can be profitable and rewarding; the success of any new Irish pub in the United States is not automatic. The chances of a new Irish pub to struggle within the first 6 months of launching can’t be ruled out.
As a matter of fact, it can take between two to five years before most Irish pubs can recover their initial investment. In order words, just like loads of new businesses, the statistics for pubs / bar do not favor startups, you just have to have a long term investment plan if you intend starting your own Irish pub business.
2. Executive Summary
Allan Anderson® Irish Pub is a pub with full-fledged Irish theme and a mini brewery that is located in New York City, New York. Our pub is strategically located to attract tourists, the middle-class and upper middle-class working public. Our facility is strategically positioned and it is ideal for the kind of business that we want to run.
We are a unique pub that is set to contribute our own quota to the already healthy social life that New York City is known for. We will make available assorted beers, wines, liquors, distilled spirits, martinis, non-alcoholic drinks, tobacco, beverages and foods to all those that will patronize us.
Allan Anderson® Irish Pub is going to be located in a conducive environment that is specifically designed for relaxing, socializing and networking. Our facility has the capacity to accommodate 80 people per time. The facility is designed to meet both the health and safety standards as recommended by the local authority. Our customers are going to be treated with good music at all times.
We have made provision for live band, karaoke, country side music and jazz et al with Irish theme which will be played at different times / days to create the ambience that our customers will cherish and opportunity for them to dance and be happy.
We are in the Irish pub line of business to make profit, and at the same time to give our customers value for their money; we want to give people who patronize our pub the opportunity to choose from the wide range of alcoholic drinks and other drinks that are manufactured in the United States of America and other countries of the world.
We will employ all publicity strategies that will enable our pub to become the talk of town. We have put plans in place to make our Irish pub bubbling especially during weekends and also our facility will be highly secured because who want to attract everybody, both celebrities and non-celebrities alike.
Allan Anderson® Irish Pub is a family owned business; it is owned by Mr. Allan Anderson and his immediate family members. Allan Anderson is an Irish – American that has over 12 years’ experience working for some of the leading Irish pubs and night clubs in the United States prior to starting Allan Anderson® Irish Pub.
Although the business will be starting with just one outlet in New York City, but there are plans in place to open other outlets and sell franchise all across the United States of America.
3. Our Products and Services
Allan Anderson® Irish Pub is going to operate a standard Irish pub that will make available every activity, services and product that can be found in a standard bar in the United States. We are in the Irish pub line of business to compete with leaders in our industry.
Aside from assorted spirits, and beers et al, we will ensure that we go to all lengths to make available good Irish theme music that will complement our business. These are some of the products and services that will be found in our bar;
- Beers (Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, Budweiser, Michelob Ultra-Light, Natural Light, Busch Light, Bush, Redds Apple Ale, Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Keystone Light, Pabst Blue Ribbon, Bud Light Lime, Bud Light Platinum Lager et al)
- Locally Crafted Beers (Pale Beers, Amber Beers, Dark Beers, Hebrew Beers, Gluten Free, Organic Brews, Cider et al)
- Distilled spirits
- Non – alcoholic beverages
4. Our Mission and Vision Statement
- Our vision is to build a business that will be the happening place in the whole of New York City. We want to become the talk of town when it comes to pubs / bars and night clubs in the whole of New York City.
- Our mission is to establish an Irish pub business that will create a standard of excellence in the industry. We want to grow our Irish pub business to be listed amongst the top 5 Irish pubs in the United State within the first 10 years of opening our doors to the general public.
Our Business Structure
Allan Anderson® Irish Pub is established to be a pacesetter when it comes to how standard Irish pub should be run in New York City. We will assemble a team of dedicated workforce who will give our customers excellent customer service at all times, a team that will ensure that we will continue to have repeated customers and a team that will make us the melting pot of all lovers of Irish theme pub, social life, alcoholic and non – alcoholic drinks in New York City.
Below is the shape and structure we will build Allan Anderson® Irish Pub on;
- Chief Executive Officer (Owner)
- Pub Manager
- Greeters/Customer Service Agent/Table Attendant
- Security Officers
5. Job Roles and Responsibilities
Chief Executive Officer – CEO:
- Increases management’s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions.
- Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals
- Responsible for providing direction for the business
- Creates, communicates, and implements the organization’s vision, mission, and overall direction – i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization’s strategy.
- Signs checks and documents on behalf of the company
- Evaluates the success of the organization
- Responsible for managing the daily activities in the pub
- Ensures that the facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers
- Interfaces with vendors
- Reports to the Chief Executive Officer
- Attends to Customers complains and enquiries
- Prepares budget and reports for the organization
- Responsible for Training and Development in the organization
- Responsible for procuring of raw materials and equipment
- Handles any other duty as assigned by the CEO
- Interacts with customers, take orders for drinks and snacks.
- Plans and presents bar menu.
- Checks identification of the guest to make sure they meet the age requirement for the purchase of alcohol and tobacco products.
- Mixes drinks, cocktails and other bar beverages as ordered and in compliance with pub drink recipes.
- Arranges bottles and glasses to make attractive displays.
- Assesses customers’ needs and preferences and make recommendations
- Makes lists of supplies in conjunction with the bar manager / management
- Prepares inventory or purchase requisitions as needed to replenish supplies
- Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization
- Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis.
- Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for one or more properties.
- Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies
- Responsible for administering payrolls
- Ensures compliance with taxation legislation
- Handles all financial transactions for the company
- Serves as internal auditor for the company.
Disc Jockey (DJ)
- Coordinates karaoke sessions
- Ensures that customers are entertained with the best of music with Irish theme per time
- Manages the sound system for the karaoke bar
- In charge of music collections
- Responsible for developing music playlists.
- Responsible for mixing music tracks.
Greeters/Customer Service Agent/Table Attendant
- Opens door and welcome customers
- Ensures that customers feel relaxed and at home
- Handles customers’ enquiries
- Provides recommendations and suggestions to guest for choosing drinks and snacks.
- Serves customers in a friendly and helpful manner.
- Determines when a customer has had too much alcohol and if required refusing any further serving on a polite way.
- Demonstrates a thorough knowledge of karaoke sessions and alcoholic products, menus and Promotions
- Handles any other duty as assigned by the pub manager
- Cleans up after customers
- Clears ashtrays as and when required.
- Washes glassware and utensils after each use.
- Maintains a clean working area by sweeping, vacuuming, dusting, cleaning of doors and windows, etc.
- Ensures that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of stock
- Handles any other duty as assigned by the pub manager.
- Ensures that the pub facility is secured at all time
- Controls traffic and organize parking
- Patrols around the building on a 24 hours’ basis
- Submits security reports weekly
- Any other duty as assigned by the pub manager
6. SWOT Analysis
Allan Anderson® Irish Pub is established with the aim of becoming the melting pot of all lovers of Irish theme – pub, social life, and drinks in New York City and to become a pacesetter when it comes to how standard Irish pub should be run in New York City, which is why we have taken our time to conduct a SWOT analysis to be able to identify areas we need to work on if indeed we want to achieve our business goals and objectives.
No investor would want to invest his or her hard earned money without assessing the risks involved in the venture. The ability to make profits from any business and to favorably compete with competitors in the industry starts with the result you get from your SWOT analysis.
In view of that, Allan Anderson® Irish Pub hired a business and HR specialist to help conduct SWOT analysis for the business and below is a summary of the result that was generated.
Our strength as an Irish pub business are our excellent customer service, highly secured and safe facility, availability of a wide range of assorted locally brewed beers, alcoholic and non – alcoholic drinks and food. We can boast of having some of the best hands in the industry, excellent facility, excellent ambience and perfect location for an Irish pub in a bubbling city like New York City.
Going through our Business model, we came to the conclusion that our perceived weakness could be that we are a new Irish pub in a highly competitive city like New York City, and we may not have the financial muscle to sustain the kind of publicity we want to give our business.
The fact that we are going to be operating our Irish pub in one of the busiest streets in New York City provides us with unlimited opportunities to sell ourselves. The positioning of our pub facility will make it possible for us not to struggle to sell our products. Another opportunity that we stand to leverage on is the fact that we can easily order any brand of beer, spirit and other drinks directly from the manufacturers with little or no stress.
One of the threats that is likely going to confront us is unfavorable government policies, security threat, downturn in the economy which is likely going to affect sales and perhaps the emergence of new Irish pub or even night club within the same location where our pub is located.
7. MARKET ANALYSIS
- Market Trends
The societal shift away from alcoholic drinks toward healthier lifestyles is to a larger extent contributing to a steady decline in the amount of individual spending allocated to trips to bars and nightclubs plus the fact that nobody wants to be caught driving while drunk. As a matter of fact, it is now trendy to find nightclubs and bars educating their customers on the dangers of driving while drunk.
The recent market trend in the nightclub and bar industry is such that the increase in the number of consumers choosing packaged beverages for home consumption rather than at bars or nightclubs is on the increase. This trend is surely going to have lasting impact on both the bar and nightclub business.
Statistics have it that the number of bars and nightclubs is forecast to decline slightly but that does not in any way affect the revenue generated by those who are still in the business. In fact, the revenue is expected to grow as the economy improves and consumer spending increases. The industry revenue is projected to grow to about 2.5% per year over the next 6 years.
It is also important to point out that personal income and entertainment contributes greatly to the number of people that patronize Irish pubs. Although there are loads of clients for the Irish pub business, but the profitability of an individual pub depends largely on their ability to drive traffic and develop a loyal customer base.
Irish pubs do not only compete with one another alone, they also share the available market with other businesses like bars and night clubs, restaurants, hotels, casinos and outlets that retails drinks for home consumption.
8. Our Target Market
The target market for our Irish pub cuts across people of different class and people from all walks of life. We have done our feasibility studies and market survey and we were able to identify those who we expect will patronize our Irish pub eventually become our loyal customers.
Below is a list of the people that we have specifically designed our Irish pub for;
- Corporate Executives
- Business People
- People in the entertainment industry
- Event planners
- Sports Men and Women
- College Students
Our Competitive Advantage
The truth is that despite the fact that the level of competition for Irish pub business is pretty high in New York City, one thing is certain, if you know how to drive traffic to your pub, you will sure make huge returns from the business. Good enough, the owner of our Irish pub has the magic wand to attract Irish theme lovers; he has done it with several nightclubs and bars that he has managed all across the United State of America.
Part of what is going to be our selling point in New York City is the fact that we operate a standard Irish pub in a perfect location for the kind of business that we run and also the fact that our Irish pub facility is highly secured. Another factor that will give Allan Anderson® Irish Pub competitive edge is that we have enough packing space to accommodate the number of customers our Irish pub can contain per time.
We are not ignoring the fact that we are among the few Irish pubs in downtown New York City that sells almost all the brands of beer, wines, distilled spirits, liquors et al and that will surely count towards our advantage in the market; and the robust experience of our CEO and the pub manager is also a positive for Allan Anderson® Irish Pub.
Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category in the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and objectives.
9. SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY
- Sources of Income
Allan Anderson® Irish Pub is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the industry and we are going to do all it takes to attract clients on a regular basis. Allan Anderson® Irish Pub will generate income by offering the following products and services;
- Sales of Beers (Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, Budweiser, Michelob Ultra-Light, Natural Light, Busch Light, Bush, Redds Apple Ale, Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Keystone Light, Pabst Blue Ribbon, Bud Light Lime, Bud Light Platinum Lager et al)
- Sales of Locally Crafted Beers (Pale Beers, Amber Beers, Dark Beers, Hebrew Beers, Gluten Free, Organic Brews, Cider et al)
- Sales of Assorted Wines
- Sales of Distilled spirits
- Sales of Liquor
- Sales of Martinis
- Sales of Small Chops
- Sales of Non – alcoholic beverages
- Sales of Tobacco
10. Sales Forecast
If your Irish bar is cozy, relaxing, well stocked and centrally positioned, you will always attract customers cum sales and that will sure translate to increase in revenue generation for the business. We are well positioned to take on the available market in New York City and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough profits from our first six months of operation.
We have been able to examine the Irish pub market, we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projections are based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to similar startups in New York City.
- First Fiscal Year: $250,000
- Second Fiscal Year: $350,000
- Third Fiscal Year: $750,000
N.B: This projection was done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and any major competitor offering what we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher.
- Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy
Top of the list on our marketing and sales strategy is generating a buzz for our Irish pub via word-of-mouth and leveraging on road shows.
The model of Irish pub we intend running is a standard Irish pub that can favorably compete with other leading pubs in the United States hence we are not going to rely only on the conventional ways of marketing. We have the plans to run paid adverts on Local TV, radio stations and newspapers. We will sure maximize every other available means to promote our business.
In view of that, we are going to adopt the following strategies to ensure that we do not only attract customers to patronize our Irish pub but generate repeated sales from them; Part of the marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt are;
- Open our Irish pub in a grand style with a party for all.
- Ensure that we have a wide range entertainment services (standup comedy, live band, concerts and karaoke et al) and products (beers, wines, liquors, distilled spirits, martinis and non-alcoholic drinks) at all times.
- Make use of attractive hand bills to create awareness and also to give direction to our Irish pub
- Position our flexi banners at strategic locations all across New York City
- Position our greeters to welcome and direct customers
- Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers
- Engage on roadshows within our neighborhood to create awareness for our Irish pub.
11. Publicity and Advertising Strategy
Regardless of the fact that our Irish pub is well located in New York City, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for the business.
Allan Anderson® Irish Pub is a standard Irish pub hence we will ensure that we create the buzz that will make people in and around New York City know about us and what we do. We are quite aware that one of the effective ways of promoting our Irish pub is to create special internal promotions which in turn will help us achieve our aim of leveraging on word of mouth publicity.
Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Allan Anderson® Irish Pub;
- Encourage our loyal customers to help us use word of mouth
- Sponsor relevant community programs
- Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like Instagram, Facebook, twitter, et al to promote our Irish pub brand
- Install our billboards in strategic locations all across New York City
- List our Irish pub in local directories (Yellow Pages)
- Engage in roadshows from time to time all across New York City
- Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas
- Position our Flexi Banners at strategic positions around our Irish pub location
- Advertise our Irish pub business in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site
- Brand all our official cars and vans and ensure that all our staff members wear our branded shirt or cap at regular intervals.
12. Our Pricing Strategy
The prices of our product offerings will be same as what is obtainable in the market. In fact, we will try as much as we can to sell below the industry’s average so as to attract loads of customers. We also have plans in place to discount our products once in a while and also to reward our loyal customers.
- Payment Options
The payment policy adopted by Allan Anderson® Irish Pub is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by the financial rules and regulation of the United States of America.
Here are the payment options that Allan Anderson® Irish Pub will make available to her clients;
- Payment with cash
- Payment via credit cards/Point of Sale Machines (POS Machines)
- Payment via online bank transfer
- Payment via check
- Payment via mobile money transfer
In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for our services and products without any stress on their part.
13. Startup Expenditure (Budget)
If you are looking towards starting an Irish pub business, then you should ensure that you raise enough capital to cover some of the basic expenditure that you are going to incur. The truth is that starting this type of business does not come cheap.
You would need money to secure a standard facility in a secure environment, acquire sound system and pay your workforce and pay bills for a while until the revenue you generate from the business becomes enough to pay them. Besides it is expensive to acquire a standard facility with enough car parking space in a thriving location.
The items listed below are the basics that we would need tick when starting our Irish pub business in the United States, although costs might vary slightly;
- The total fee for registering the Business in the United States of America – $750.
- Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the accounting services totaling – $1,200.
- Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580.
- The cost for hiring business consultant – $2,500.
- Insurance (general liability, workers’ compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium – $2,400.
- The cost of accounting software, CRM software and Payroll Software – $15,000
- Cost for payment of rent for 12 months at $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of – $105,600.
- The cost for pub facility remodeling – $25,000.
- Other start-up expenses including stationery – $500
- Amount needed for phone and utility deposits – ($2,500)
- Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) – $60,000
- The cost for start-up inventory (assorted tobaccos, assorted cigars and alcoholic drinks and non-alcoholic drinks) – $16,027
- Storage hardware (bins, utensil rack, shelves, glasses case) – $3,720
- The cost for counter equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) – $9,500
- The cost for serving equipment (glasses, flatware) – $3,000
- The cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) – $13,750
- The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al) – $4,000.
- The cost of launching a website – $600
- The cost for our grand opening party – $5,000
- Miscellaneous – $2,500
We would need an estimate of two hundred and fifty thousand ($250,000) to successfully launch our Irish pub in New York City.
Generating Startup Capital for Allan Anderson® Irish Pub
Allan Anderson® Irish Pub is a private business that is owned by Allan Anderson and his immediate family members and they intend to finance the business alone. Although they have plans to make the pub manager part owner of the business after 5 or 7 years of service, but that does not stop him from reserving over 80 percent stake of the business for himself and his family.
Since they are the sole financiers of the business, they have decided to adopt the following means to generate startup capital for the business;
- Generate part of the startup capital from his personal savings and sale of his stocks
- Source for soft loans from family members and friends
- Apply for loan from the bank
N.B: Mr. Allan Anderson and his family have been able to generate $100,000. The breakdown shows that we generated $75,000 from personal savings and sale of stocks and generated $25,000 soft loans from family members and friends.
The balance of $150,000 will be generated as loan facility from the bank. All the papers and documents have been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited.
14. Sustainability and Expansion Strategy
One of our major goals of starting Allan Anderson® Irish Pub is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running. We know that the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to properly position our Irish pub, ensure adequate security, availability of various brands of drinks at highly competitive prices and excellent customer service.
Allan Anderson® Irish Pub will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at the top burner.
We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of our dreams.
- Business Name Availability Check: Completed
- Business Registration: Completed
- Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed
- Securing license from music companies: In Progress
- Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed
- Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed
- Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed
- Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress
- Application for business license and permit: Completed
- Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed
- Renting of facility and remodeling the facility: In Progress
- Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed
- Generating capital from family members: Completed
- Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress
- Writing of Business Plan: Completed
- Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed
- Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress
- Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed
- Printing of Promotional Materials: In Progress
- Recruitment of employees: In Progress
- Purchase of the needed furniture, electronic appliances, office appliances and bar accessories: In progress
- Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed
- Creating Awareness for the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress
- Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured
- Opening party planning: In Progress
- Establishing business relationship with vendors – suppliers of all our needed cigars, wine, alcoholic and non – alcoholic drinks, tobacco et al: In Progress