Are you about starting an Uber driver management company? If YES, here is a complete sample Uber driver business plan template & FREE feasibility report.
Since the emergence of Uber and other e – hailing taxi services business, quite a lot of business opportunities have sprung up in the niche and interestingly, one of such business opportunities is to run an independent business that manages drivers and fleet of cars under Uber.
You can decide to just recruit drivers for Uber and make available cars for them to ride, or you can serve as a middle – man between Uber and potential drivers.
It is important to note that starting a standard Uber business with over a handful of cars and drivers also needs a significant investment capital, solid planning, and concentration to detail in order to keep your business profitable. You are also expected to have done your feasibility studies and market survey before committing your capital in the business.
A Sample Uber Driver Business Plan Template
1. Industry Overview
Uber driver services companies are known as taxi e-hailing software app services company and the business is under the taxi e-hailing software app services industry. A taxi e-hailing software app company provides comfortable and private transportation via automobiles for passengers.
This taxi service is not operated on regular schedules or routes like the usual buses or car that usually pick several passengers along the road.
Uber Technologies Inc. is an American multinational transportation network company (TNC) offering services that include peer-to-peer ridesharing, ride service hailing, food delivery, and a bicycle-sharing system. The company is based in San Francisco and has operations in 785 metropolitan areas worldwide. Its platforms can be accessed via its websites and mobile apps.
A recent statistic released in 2019 shows that Uber is estimated to have 110 million worldwide users, a 69.0 percent market share in the united states for passenger transport, and a 25 percent market share for food delivery. Uber has been so prominent in the sharing economy that the changes in industries as a result of it have been referred to as uberisation, and many startups have described their products as “Uber for X”.
A good percentage of Uber drivers use their own cars even though drivers can rent or lease a car to drive with Uber. Uber offers car rental or leasing via Getaround, Hertz, and Fair, and Uber and BYD Auto have a partnership to provide leasing of electric cars to Uber drivers in Chicago and New York City.
In order to qualify as a driver under Uber, you must meet some basic requirements for age, health, car age and type, have a driver’s license and a smartphone or tablet, and must pass a background check. In many cities, vehicles used by Uber drivers must pass annual safety inspections and/or must have an Uber emblem posted in the passenger window. Some cities also require Uber drivers to have a business license.
Uber drivers are considered independent contractors and not employees, though this has been the subject of lawsuits in several jurisdictions. Before drivers accept a ride, the app tells them if the ride will take more than 45 minutes. Uber has invested significantly in mapping technology.
The Uber driver app includes accommodations for hearing-impaired drivers. Drivers in the United States who open a checking account at GoBank by Green Dot receive a debit card that provides cash back for purchases at Exxon, Walmart, Sprint, Jiffy Lube, and Advance Auto Parts.
To verify identity and prevent drivers’ accounts from being compromised, a mechanism called “Real-Time ID Check” requires some drivers to occasionally take selfies when logging on to Uber.
The bottom line is that Uber is open to partnership with an independent company that can help them extend their market – share in the taxi e-hailing software app industry and you can leverage on this to start your own Uber taxi driver business in the United States of America.
2. Executive Summary
Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. is a licensed and registered taxi e – hailing software app company that intends to manage drivers under Uber. We will be based in Miami Beach, Florida – United States of America and we will have active presence in other cities like Green acres City, Miami, Jacksonville, Clearwater, Tampa, Fort Lauderdale, North Miami, West Palm Beach, Palm Harbor, Deltona, Orlando, Palm Bay and Panama City et al.
We chose to operate in these cities because we know that our services will be in high demand due to the demographic composition of Florida. We are well trained and equipped with some of the finest taxi cab drivers and comfortable cars to service our clients irrespective of their social and financial status.
Our services will involve managing professional drivers and fleet of cars under Uber. Our aim is to offer only the above stated services, but we will not close our doors to diversification (additional services) as long as it does not affect our core services.
At Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. we are passionate in the pursuit of excellence and financial success with uncompromising services and integrity which is why we have decided to start our own Uber driver service business. We are quite optimistic that our values and quality of service offering will help us drive Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. to enviable heights.
We will be dedicated to establishing good business relationships with our clients giving them value for their money and reasons for them to hire our services over and over again. We are quite aware that in order to become the number one choice in our city, we must continue to deliver quality and highly reliable services.
We are open to the use of latest technology in the taxi e-hailing software app services line of business. No doubt our excellent customer service and the quality of services we offer will position us to always welcome repeated customers.
Our client’s best interest will always come first, and everything we do will be guided by our values and professional ethics. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our client’s needs precisely and completely.
Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. is owned and managed by Wilson Garry and his friend and business partner Allen Rooney.
They both graduated from University of California and are equipped with the required qualifications and experience to grow Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. to favorable compete with leaders in the Taxi e-hailing software app services industry.
3. Our Products and Services
Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. is a standard Uber driver company that is positioned to make profit and favorable compete with leaders in the industry and we are going to do all that is permitted by the law of the United States of America to achieve our business aims and ambition. Our services offerings are listed below;
- Recruiting, training and providing drivers for partners under Uber
- Managing drivers and fleet of cars for partners under Uber
4. Our Mission and Vision Statement
- Our vision is to become the number one Uber driver company in the whole of Florida with active presence in key cities all around the State of Florida.
- Our mission as a standard Uber driver company is to develop a highly successful, profitable business which provides reliable drivers and cars in our city and to become the standard for an ideal taxi e-hailing business not only in the State of Florida but also throughout the United States of America.
Our Business Structure
We are quite aware that the success of any business lies in the foundation on which the business is built on, which is why we have decided to build our taxi e-hailing software app company on the right business foundation.
As a matter of fact, we are set to build an Uber driver services company that will be the standard for the industry in the United States of America. We want to build a dedicated workforce that will ensure that our customers and partners are satisfied and they get value for their money.
We aware that it takes a business with the right employees and structures to achieve all what we have set to achieve, which is why we will be putting structures and processes in place that will help us deliver excellent services and run the business on autopilot.
With the wide range of our service offerings, we are expected to employ more than it is required to run a conventional Uber driver business.
Definitely, we will have various employees (full – time and contract staff) to man the various service offerings of Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. will employ professionals and highly skilled people to occupy the following position;
- Chief Executive Officer
- IT Specialist
- Admin and HR Manager
- Marketing and Sales Executive
- Professional Drivers
- Customer Care Executive / Front Desk Officer
5. Job Roles and Responsibilities
Chief Executive Office:
- Increases management’s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results and developing incentives
- Creating, communicating, and implementing the organization’s vision, mission, and overall direction – i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization’s strategy.
- Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals
- Responsible for providing direction for the business
- Creating, communicating, and implementing the organization’s vision, mission, and overall direction – i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization’s strategy.
- Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company
- Evaluates the success of the organization
- Managing our software and backend
- Responsible for installation, repair and maintenance of GPS car tracking device for the organization
- Responsible for writing and presenting reports, proposals, applications and contracts
- In charge of choosing the GPC car tracker components and software to be used and specifying the requirements for the project
- Adapting plans according to circumstances and resolving any problems that may arise during GPS car tracker installation and monitoring
- Monitor all our taxi that are plying different routes
Admin and HR Manager
- Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization
- Design job descriptions with KPI to drive performance management for clients
- Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders to review the effectiveness of HR Policies, Procedures and Processes
- Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products.
- Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs.
- Defining job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process
- Carrying out induction for new team members
- Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees
- Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments
- Oversee the smooth running of the daily office activities.
Marketing and Sales Executive
- Identify, prioritize, and reach out to new partners, and business opportunities et al
- Identifies potential partners; follows up on development leads and contacts
- Writing winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in line with company policy
- Responsible for handling business research, marker surveys and feasibility studies for clients
- Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients
- Document all customer contact and information
- Represent the company in strategic meetings
- Help increase sales and growth for the company
- Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization
- Create reports from the information concerning the financial transactions recorded by the bookkeeper
- Prepare the income statement and balance sheet using the trial balance and ledgers prepared by the bookkeeper.
- Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports
- Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis.
- Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies
- Responsible for administering payrolls
- Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation
- Handles all financial transactions for the company
- Serves as internal auditor for the company
- Serve as a professional driver for the organization by driving cars as assigned by the management
- Maintain a logbook of their driving activities to ensure compliance with federal regulations governing the rest and work periods for operators.
- Keep a record of vehicle inspections and make sure the cab is equipped with safety equipment
- Inspect vehicles for mechanical items and safety issues and perform preventative maintenance
- Comply with taxi driving rules and regulations as well as with company policies and procedures
- Report defects, accidents or violations
Client Service Executive/Front Desk Officer
- Welcomes guests and clients by greeting them in person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries.
- Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level
- Through interaction with clients on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and services
- Manages administrative duties assigned by the manager in an effective and timely manner
- Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the company’s products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to clients
- Receives parcels / documents for the company
- Distribute mails in the organization
- Handles any other duties as assigned by the line manager
6. SWOT Analysis
Taxi e-hailing software app business cum Uber driver business is one of the many businesses that can easily generate sales with little stress. We are building a standard Uber driver business with plans to sell our franchise all across the United States of America and Canada which is why we have decided to subject our business idea (company) to SWOT Analysis.
Ordinarily we can successfully run a normal Uber services business without the stress of writing a detailed business plan, but because we intend becoming one of the leaders in the line of business we want to establish, we don’t have any option other than to follow due process.
We hired the services of Lardon Maxwell, an expert HR and Business consultant with bias in disruptive startups to help us conduct SWOT analysis for our company and she did a pretty job for us. Here is a of the result we got from the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc.;
The strategic locations we intend covering, the Business model we will be operating on, access to a pool of willing partners, ease of payment, wide range of highly reliable and comfortable cars, highly trained and courteous drivers and of course our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc.
A major weakness that may count against us is the fact that for now, we don’t have the financial capacity and business structure to compete with Uber hence the need for us to work with them as an independent partner.
The fact that we are launching out in the heart of Miami – Florida, provides us with unlimited opportunities to market our services to a large number of professional drivers, business partners, corporate organizations, travel and tours agencies, hotels, government organizations, households et al.
We have been able to conduct thorough feasibility studies and market survey and we know what our potential clients will be looking for when they patronize our services; we are well positioned to take on the opportunities that will come our way.
A major threat that we are going to be confronted with is that as an independent business whose services is dependent on Uber, we might not have a say on how they run their business and they may decide to release policies that may adversely affect our business.
7. MARKET ANALYSIS
- Market Trends
The market for luxury services such as taxi and limousine services is driven by the growth of the economy and the increase in consumer spending – in essence, as the general economy of a country grows, more people will have enough financial resources to patronize luxury services such as making use of taxi cum Uber as against making use of public buses, and trains et al.
Besides, revenue generated by an Uber services company is driven by business and leisure travel. No doubt, the profitability of operators in this industry depends on good marketing and networking. Small taxi cab companies can effectively compete with large ones because there are few economies of scale in this line of business.
Research shows that the taxi cab and limousine services industry in the US is fragmented: the top 50 companies account for less than 35 percent of the total revenue generated in the industry.
Lastly, technology has indeed played a major role in this industry; especially in cutting cost and enforcing safety and monitoring measures. GPS car tracking device readily comes to mind. There is hardly any Uber services company that does not have GPS car tracker installed on all their cabs. It helps them in monitoring their fleets, drivers and also in planning and budgeting.
8. Our Target Market
Before choosing a location to launch our Uber services company, we conducted our feasibility studies and market survey and we were able to identify those who will benefit greatly from our service. Those who will benefit from our service offering are grouped into three and they are;
- Investors / partners who are interested in investing in Uber by making available fleet of cars to be managed by a company like ours
- Professional drivers who want to drive under Uber but don’t have their own cars
- Everyone who has the financial capacity to make use of taxi cabs / Uber.
Our competitive advantage
Taxi cab and limousine services business is an easy to set up business especially if you have the finance to acquire comfortable cars, attract drivers and the ability to run and manage a business. It means that the possibility of Uber driver businesses springing up where our company is located is high.
We are aware of this that is why we decided to come up with a business concept that will position us to become the leader in Miami – Florida.
We can confidently say that the strategic locations we intend covering, the Business model we will be operating on, access to pool of partners and investors, ease of payment, wide range of highly reliable and comfortable cars, highly trained and courteous drivers and of course our excellent customer service culture will definitely serve as competitive advantage for Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc.
For the time being, Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. has no real competitors that can compete with the quality of services we offer. Our customer service will be customized to meet the needs of all our customers.
Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups Uber services businesses in the United States) in the industry. It will enable them to be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our business aims and objectives.
9. SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY
- Sources of Income
Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the industry and we are going to ensure that we do all it takes to attract clients on a regular basis. We will ensure that we leverage on our strength and the opportunities available to us in the U.S. market to generate enough income that will help us drive the business to stability.
We will explore every available sources of income in the taxi e-hailing software apps industry. Below are the sources we intend exploring to generate income for Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc.;
- Recruiting, training and providing drivers for partners under Uber
- Managing drivers and fleet of cars for partners under Uber
10. Sales Forecast
One thing is certain, there would always be investors and drivers who would need the services of Uber companies. We are well positioned to take on the available market in Miami – Florida and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six months of operation and grow our Uber driver business and our clientele base.
We have been able to examine the taxi e-hailing services software apps market, we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. Below are the sales projections for Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. it is based on the location of our business and of course the wide range of related services that we will be offering;
- First Fiscal Year: $240,000
- Second Fiscal Year: $450,000
- Third Fiscal Year: $950,000
N.B: This projection was done based on what is obtainable in the taxi e-hailing software apps industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor offering the same services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher.
- Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy
The marketing strategy for Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. is going to be driven by good returns on investment (ROI) for our partners, excellent customer service, honesty and quality service delivery. We will ensure that we build a loyal customer base.
We want to drive sales via the output of our jobs and via referral from our satisfied customers. We are quite aware of how satisfied customers and investors drive business growth especially businesses like Uber driver services. Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. is strategically located and we are going to maximize the opportunities that are available which is why we spent more to locate the business in a location that will be visible to our target market.
Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on their experience in the industry and they will be trained on a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall goal of Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc.
Our goal is to grow Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. to become the leading Uber driver company in Miami – Florida which is why we have mapped out strategies that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force to reckon with in the taxi e-hailing software apps industry. Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. is set to make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to attract clients;
- Introduce our Uber driver services business by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to corporate organizations, travel and tour agencies, hotels, households and key stakeholders in all across Miami, Green acres City, Miami, Jacksonville, Clearwater, Tampa, Fort Lauderdale, North Miami, West Palm Beach, Palm Harbor, Deltona, Orlando, Palm Bay and Panama City et al
- Print out fliers and business cards and strategically drop them in offices, car parks, libraries, public facilities and train stations et al.
- Use friends and family to spread word about our business
- Post information about our company and the services we offer on bulletin boards in places like car parks, schools, libraries, and local coffee shops et al
- Place a small or classified advertisement in the newspaper, or local publication about our company and the services we offer
- Leverage on referral networks such as agencies that will attract drivers and partners who would need our customized services
- Advertise our Uber driver services company in relevant magazines, newspapers, TV, and radio stations.
- Attend relevant automobile expos, seminars, and business fairs et al to market our services
- Engage in direct marketing approach
- Encourage the use of Word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients
- Join local chambers of commerce and industry to market our services and attract partners.
11. Publicity and Advertising Strategy
Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. is set to establish a standard for Uber businesses in Miami – Florida and throughout the United States which is why we will adopt and apply best practices to promote our business. Good enough, there is no hard and fast rule on how to advertise or promote an Uber driver services business.
The challenge is that most startup companies do not have the required money to pump into publicity and advertising. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc.;
- Encourage our loyal customers (partners and drivers) to help us use Word of Mouth mode of advertisement (referrals)
- Advertise our business in relevant magazines, local newspaper, local TV and radio stations
- Promote our business online via our official website
- List our business on local directories (yellow pages)
- Sponsor relevant community programs
- Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook, LinkedIn, twitter, et al to promote our brand
- Install our Billboards in strategic locations in and around Florida
- Direct coupon mailing approach
- Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas in and around Miami – Florida.
- Advertise our company in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site.
- Ensure that all our staff members and drivers wear our branded shirts and all our taxis are branded with our company logo
12. Our Pricing Strategy
Firstly, we don’t have the capacity to determine the price for this business since we are an independent partner with Uber; they are in the position to determine the price and the commission to pay per trip.
Secondly, since we will be managing a fleet of cars under Uber, we will ensure that we abide by the standard price range as regards leasing of cars over a period of time for our drivers who chose the lease option. For those who just want to drive under our scheme, we will pay them 40 percent of the earnings the car generates per day.
- Payment Options
The payment policy adopted by Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by the financial rules and regulation of the United States of America.
Here are the payment options that Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. will make available to her clients and partners;
- Payment via bank transfer
- Payment with cash
- Payment via online bank transfer
- Payment via check
- Payment via mobile money transfer
- Payment via bank draft
In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our clients and partners make payment without any stress on their part. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials to clients and partners who may want to deposit cash or make online transfer for our services.
13. Startup Expenditure (Budget)
From our market survey and feasibility studies, we have been able to come up with a detailed budget of establishing a standard Uber driver services company in Miami – Florida. These are the key areas where we will spend our startup capital on;
- The Total Fee for Registering the Business in the United States of America – $750.
- Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits – $1,500.
- Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580.
- Cost for hiring Business Consultant – $2,000.
- Insurance (general liability, comprehensive car insurance, workers’ compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium – $30,800.
- The cost of accounting software, CRM software and Payroll Software – $3,000
- The cost for leasing standard office facility with enough parking- $100,000.
- The cost for facility remodeling – $10,000.
- Other start-up expenses including stationery – $1000
- Amount needed for phone and utility deposits – $3,500
- Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) – $40,000
- The cost for Start-up inventory (fueling, car tracking devices and accessories) – $50,000
- The total cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) – $13,750
- The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Credit card machine, POS, tables and chairs et al): $4,000.
- The cost of Launching a Website: $600
- The total cost for financing the acquisition of the first set of Uber – spec cars – $500,000
- The cost for our grand opening party: $15,000
- Miscellaneous: $10,000
We would need an estimate of $750,000 to successfully launch our Uber driver business in Miami – Florida.
Generating Funds/Startup Capital for Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc.
Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. is a business that will be owned and managed by Wilson Garry and his friend and business partner Allen Rooney. They are the initial financiers of the business which is why they decided to restrict the sourcing of the startup capital for the business to just three major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our startup capital;
- Generate part of the startup capital from personal savings and sale of stocks
- Generate part of the startup capital from friends and other extended family members
- Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the bank (loan facility).
N.B: We have been able to generate about $200,000 (Personal savings $150,000 and soft loan from family members $50,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $550,000 from the bank. All the papers and documents have been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited.
14. Sustainability and Expansion Strategy
One of our major goals of starting Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to offer give our drivers and partners more than they can get elsewhere in terms of earnings and return on investment (ROI).
We are well prepared to survive on a low-level profit margin for a short period of time. Alpha Plus® Uber Drivers, Inc. will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of.
Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and retraining of our workforce is at the top burner.
As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of ten years or more. We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of our dreams.
- Business Name Availability Check:>Completed
- Business Registration: Completed
- Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed
- Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed
- Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed
- Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed
- Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress
- Application for business license and permit: Completed
- Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed
- Acquiring facility with enough parking lots and remodeling the facility: In Progress
- Acquiring of cars and limousines: In Progress
- Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed
- Generating capital from family members: Completed
- Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress
- Writing of Business Plan: Completed
- Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed
- Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress
- Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed
- Printing of Promotional Materials: In Progress
- Recruitment of employees: In Progress
- Purchase of office furniture and appliances, software apps and IT gadgets: In progress
- Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed
- Creating Awareness for the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress
- Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured
- Establishing business relationship with car dealership shops, Uber Technologies Inc., and other key stakeholders in the industry et al: In Progress